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Anthropology & Sociology

Marshall J. Becker, Ph.D.

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Anthropology & Sociology

Mrs. Patti Hite, Department Secretary
102 Old Library Building
West Chester, PA 19383

Phone: 610-436-2556

Marshall J. Becker, Ph.D.

Dr. Becker has produced the following scholarly publications:


  • 2013a
    Wampum Bags and Containers from the Native Northeast. Material Culture 45 (1): 21-48.
  • 2013b
    The William Wilson-Barker Collection in the Museo Nazionale Archeologico: Additional North American Archaeological and Ethnographic Material in Florence, Italy. International Journal of Anthropology 28 (2-3): PAGES.
  • 2013c
    Kilns, Firing Pits and Other Ceramic Making Technologies in Ancient Mesoamerica. THE CODEX (Pre-Columbian Society, The University Museum), Volume 21 (3): 12-36.
  • 2013
    (with Jean MacIntosh Turfa) Dental Health and Dentistry in Etruria. Pages 870-873 in, "Health and Medicine in Etruria," by Jean MacIntosh Turfa with Marshall J. Becker. Pages 855-881 in, The Etruscan World, edited by Jean MacIntosh Turfa. Oxon: Routledge World Series.
  • 2013
    T. Patrick Culbert, Marshall Becker, and Robert Sharer (contributors). Mystery at Tikal: The Disappearance of Herman Schultheis (Report from the Field). The Codex (Pre-Columbian Society, The University Museum), Volume 21 (3): 3-4.


  • 2012a
    Birdstones: New Inferences Based On Examples From The Area Around Waverly, New York. The Bulletin. Journal of the New York State Archaeological Association 126: 1-31.
  • 2012b
    Mehoxy of the Cohansey Band of Lenopi: a 1684 Document that Offers Clues to the "Missing" Part of His Biography. Bulletin of the Archaeological Society of Delaware 44 (New Series, 2007): 1-29.
  • 2012c
    Wampum on the Fringe: Explaining the Absence of a post-1600 CE Native- Produced Commodity in Delaware. Bulletin of the Archaeological Society of Delaware 45 (New Series, 2008); 23-36.
  • 2012d
    Coming of Age in Etruria: Etruscan Children’s Cemeteries at Tarquinia, Italy. International Journal of Anthropology 27 (1-2): 63-86.
  • 2012e
    Wampum Chronology: An Update on the Origins and Varied Uses of a Native American Commodity. Bulletin of the Archaeological Society of Connecticut 74: 47-66.
  • 2012f
    Two Penobscot Wampum Bands in Florence, Italy: Origins and Functions of One Subset of Bias Woven Artifacts. International Journal of Anthropology 27 (4): 233-274.
  • 2012g
    Susquehannock Material Culture Revisited: Eight Pennsylvania Ethnographic Artifacts in the Skokloster Castle Collection in Sweden and a Possible Connection to Capt. John Smith. Pennsylvania Archaeologist 82 (1): 66-73.
  • 2012h
    An Update on Puzzle Pouches and Beaded Watch Pouches: Native American Makers of Items for Sale. Newsletter of the Archaeological Society of New Jersey, No. 235: 1, 5 and 6.
  • 2012i
    "Delaware" (I: 165-182), and "New Jersey" (II: 747-764) in, Native America: A State-by-State Historical Encyclopedia (3 volumes), edited by Daniel Murphree. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press/ABC-CLIO.
  • 2012j
    Claimant Indians in New Jersey and Federally Recognized Tribes [Saving the Library]. The SRAC Journal 8 (2): 6-8.


  • 2011a
    The Prinzhof (36DE3), A Swedish Colonial Site that was the First European Center of Government in Present Pennsylvania. Bulletin of the Archaeological Society of Delaware 43 New series (Fall 2006): 1-34.
  • 2011b
    Rockshelter Use During the "Late Woodland" Period in the Northeast: Increased Use as an Aspect of the Pelt Trade. North American Archaeologist 32 (1): 81-93.
  • 2011c
    Lenape Culture History: The Transition of 1660 and its Implications for the Archaeology of the Final Phase of the Late Woodland Period. Journal of Middle Atlantic Archaeology 27:53-72.
  • 2011d
    Jacob Skickett, Lenopi Elder: Preliminary Notes from Before 1750 to after 1802. Pennsylvania Archaeologist 81 (2): 65-76.
  • 2011e
    Keposh: First Lenopi Migrant into the Forks of Delaware in Pennsylvania. Newsletter of the Archaeological Society of New Jersey, No. 230 (January):1, 3-7.
  • 2011f
    Etruscan Infants: Children's cemeteries at Tarquinia, Italy, as indicators of an age of Transition. Pages 24-36 in, Mike Lally and Alison Moore, editors. (Re)Thinking the Little Ancestor: New Perspectives on the Archaeology of Infancy and Childhood. BAR International Series 2271. Oxford, England: Archaeopress.
  • 2011g
    "Forward" Pages iii-v in, The Adena Culture of the Sandy Hill Area, Dorchester County, Maryland, by William Jack Hranicky. AuthorHouse: Bloomington, Indiana.


  • 2010a
    "Late Woodland" (CA. 1000-1740 CE) Foraging Patterns of the Lenape and Their Neighbors in the Delaware Valley. Pennsylvania Archaeologist 80 (1): 17-31.
  • 2010b
    The Armewamus Band of New Jersey: Other Clues to Differences Between the Lenopi and the Lenape. Pennsylvania Archaeologist 80 (2): 61-72.
  • 2010c
    Match Coats and the Military: Mass-Produced Clothing for Native Americans as Parallel Markets in the Seventeenth Century. Textile History 41, No. 1: Supplement (Textile History and the Military). Pages 153-181. (Awarded the Pasold Prize for 2010
  • 2010d
    Wampum Use in Southern New England: The Paradox of Bead Production without the Use of Political Belts. Pages 137-158 in, Nantucket and Other Native Places: The Legacy of Elizabeth Alden Little, edited by Elizabeth S. Chilton and Mary Lynne Rainey. Albany, NY: SUNY Press with the Massachusetts Archaeological Society.
  • 2010e
    Birdstones: Insights from a New Inventory in New England. Bulletin of the Archaeological Society of Connecticut 72: 5-61.
  • 2010f
    Forest Travelers: Unusual Skills. The Codex (Pre-Columbian Society, The University Museum), Volume 18 (3): 3 – 15.
  • 2010g
    Nightfall on the Tikal-Uaxactun Trail, by Donald Callender as Told to Marshall Becker. The Codex (Pre-Columbian Society, The University Museum), Volume 18 (3): 16 – 19.


  • 2009a
    Tikal: Evidence for Ethnic Diversity in a Prehispanic Lowland Maya State Capital. Pages 89-104 in, Domestic Life in Prehispanic Capitals: A Study of Specialization, Hierarchy, and Ethnicity, edited by Linda R. Manzanilla and Claude Chapdelaine. Memoir 46. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
  • 2009b
    Birdstones: A Continuing Enigma in North American Archaeology. Pennsylvania Archaeologist 79 (2): 42-58.
  • 2009c
    Feathered Cloaks, Foreign Affairs and War Leaders: Cross Cultural Symbolism as Represented by One Category of Matchcoats Made by Native Peoples of the Northeast Woodlands and Middle Atlantic Region. Bulletin of the Archaeological Society of New Jersey 64: 41-55.
  • 2009d
    A Quaker Farmstead in the Delaware Valley: Research at the Taylor Burying Ground Site (36-CH-117) Revealing Changes in Settlement Patterns and Culture During the Agrarian-Industrial Transition. BULLETIN: Archaeological Society of Delaware 46 (New Series [2013]): 47-70.
  • 2009e
    Skull Rituals and Plaza Plan 4 at Tikal: Lowland Maya Mortuary Patterns. The Codex [The University of Pennsylvania Museum] 17 (1-2/ 2008-09): 12-41.
  • 2009f
    An Analysis of Human Skeletal Remains from an Etruscan Urn in the Detroit Institute of Arts. Etruscan Studies 12 (2008-2009): 61-72.
  • 2009g
    Etruscan Origins of Pharmaceutical Vessel Shapes: Four Apothecary Jars From Early Chiusi, Toscana, Italy. Pages 69-72 in, Etruria e Italia Preromana: Studi in onore di Giovanangelo Camporeale, Volume I (of two), edited by Stefano Bruni. Pisa: Accademia Editoriale.
  • 2009h
    The Vatican 1831 Wampum Belt: A Day of Study at the Vatican Museums. Newsletter of the Archaeological Society of New Jersey 224: 5-6.
  • 2009i
    The Human Bones. Pages 205-208 in, Excavations at Le Mura di Santo Stefano, Anguillara Sabazia, by Robert Van de Noort and David Whitehouse. Papers of the British School at Rome 77: 159-223.
  • 2009j
    Settlement Patterns of the Lenape and Their Neighbors in the Delaware Valley: Remembering Fantasies, etc. Newsletter of the Archaeological Society of New Jersey, Number 225 (May): 1, 4-7.
  • 2009k
    Six Popular Myths About the Lenape: A Progress Report. The SRAC Journal (Susquehanna River Archaeological Center) 5 (1): 1, 6-9
  • *2009
    Marshall Joseph Becker, Jean MacIntosh Turfa, and Bridget Algee-Hewitt. Human Remains from Etruscan and Italic Tomb Groups in the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, Philadelphia: Analysis and Inferences. Biblioteca di "Studi etruschi" No. 48. Monograph Series of the Istituto di Studi Etruschi ed Italici. Pisa: Fabrizio Serra editore. (see review in BMCR 2010.03.50 & Etruscan News 12 (2010): 26, 28)
  • 2009
    Marshall Joseph Becker and Jonathan Lainey. Wampum and the White Dog Ceremony: Preliminary Notes on a Ritual Use for this Specific Type of Shell Beads. Newsletter of the Archaeological Society of New Jersey 219 (January): 3-6.


  • 2008a
    Small Wampum Bands Used by Native Americans in the Northeast: Functions and Recycling. Material Culture 40 (1): 1-17.
  • 2008b
    Cremation and Comminution at Etruscan Tarquinia in the 5TH-4TH Century BCE: Insights into Cultural Transformations from Tomb 6322. Pages 229-248 (Chapter 14) in, Votives, Places and Rituals in Etruscan Religion: Studies in Honor of Jean MacIntosh Turfa, edited by Margarita Gleba and Hilary Becker. Leiden: Brill.
  • 2008c
    "POWER POINT": Multiple Perspectives on Native American Grave Recovery, Including Those Relating to American Legal Systems. Journal of Middle Atlantic Archaeology 24: 27-38.
  • 2008d
    Perinatal Cemeteries in Etruria: The Continuing Search for Context and Meaning. Paleopathology Newsletter, No. 142: 17-19.
  • 2008e
    Lenopi, Or, What’s in a Name? Interpreting the Evidence for Cultural Boundaries in the Lower Delaware Valley. Bulletin of the Archaeological Society of New Jersey 63: 11 – 32.
  • 2008f
    Appropriate Terms: Linking Ceramic Types and Cultural Affiliations. Bulletin of the Archaeological Society of New Jersey 64: 41 – 47.
  • 2008g
    Grillz. Anthropology News 49 (5): 3.
  • 2008h
    Some Notes on Native Indian Grave Recovery and Multiple Related Issues. The SRAC Journal (Susquehanna River Archaeological Center of Native Indian Studies) 4 (1): 11-14.


  • 2007a
    Childhood among the Etruscans: Mortuary Programs at Tarquinia as Indicators of the Transition to Adult Status. Pages 281-292 in, Constructions of Childhood in Ancient Greece and Italy, edited by Ada Cohen and Jeremy B. Rutter. Hesperia, Supplement 41
  • 2007b
    Wampum Held by the Oneida Indian Nation, Inc. of New York: Research Relating to Wampum Cuffs and Belts. The Bulletin. Journal of the New York State Archaeological Association 123: 1-18.
  • 2007c
    Unique Huron Ornamental Bands: Wampum Cuffs. Material Culture Review 66: 59-67.
  • 2007d
    Native Lives in New Jersey. Bulletin of the Archaeological Society of New Jersey 62: 93-95.
  • 2007e
    Appendix II: The Site Human Skeletons (Site 10). The Via Gabina Villas – Sites 10, 11 and 13. Updated February 2007 by W. Widrig. Updated and reissued from Becker 1986 Notizie degli scavi 1983, pp. 176-182. Printed vol. avail. on demand, May 2010 as "Append. II: The Human Skeletons From Site 10, in The Via Gabina Villa: Sites 10, 11, and 13.
  • 2007f
    II.4.2 The anthropological analysis of the human skeletal remains: Tombs 6008, 6093 and 6092. Suspected Tomb. Pages 50-52 of "The Excavations" by Helle Horsnaes. In, Hellenistic and Roman Pontecagnano: The Danish Excavations in Proprietà Avallone 1986-1990, edited by Birgit Tang. Centre Jean Bérard: Naples.


  • 2006a
    Anadromous Fish and the Lenape. Pennsylvania Archaeologist 76 (2): 28-40.
  • 2006b
    Foragers in Southern New England: Correlating Social Systems, Maize Production and Wampum Use. Bulletin of the Archaeological Society of Connecticut 68: 75-107.
  • 2006c
    The Vatican 1831 Wampum Belt: Cultural Origins of An Important American Indian Artifact and its Meaning as the Last "Ecclesiastical Convert" Belt. Bulletin of the Archaeological Society of New Jersey 61: 79-134.
  • 2006d
    The Archaeology of Infancy and Childhood: Integrating and Expanding Research into the Past. [Review essay : J. D. Uzzi, Children in the Visual Arts of Imperial Rome, 2005; J. Neils and J. H. Oakley, Coming of Age in Ancient Greece: Images of Childhood from the Classical Past, 2003; J. E. Baxter, The Archaeology of Childhood: Children, Gender, and Material Culture, 2005; B. J. Baker, T. L. Dupras, and M. W. Tocheri, The Osteology of Infants and Children,2005]. American Journal of Archaeology 110: 655-658.
  • 2006e
    Etruscan Women at Tarquinia: Skeletal Evidence for Tomb Use [Abstracted from Becker 2005f, Analecta Romana]. Pages 292-294 in, Common Ground: Archaeology, Art, Science, and Humanities. Proceedings of the XVIth International Congress of Classical Archaeology. Boston, August 23-26, 2003. Edited by Carol C. Mattusch, A. A. Donohue and Amy Brauer. Oxford: Oxbow Books.
  • 2006f
    The Prinzhof (36DE3), A Swedish Colonial Site that was the First European Center of Government in Present Pennsylvania. Bulletin of the Archaeological Society of Delaware 43 New series (Fall): 1-34 [Issued 2011].
  • 2006g
    A Petroglyph in Philadelphia’s Pennypack Park. Newsletter of the Archaeological Society of New Jersey 213 (May): 1, 3.


  • 2005a
    Matchcoats: Cultural Conservatism and Change. Ethnohistory 52 (4): 727-787.
  • 2005b
    Penobscot Wampum Belt Use during the 1722-1727 Conflict in Maine. Pages 23- 51 in, Papers of the Thirty-Sixth Algonquian Conference, edited by H. C. Wolfart. Winnipeg: University of Manitoba.
  • 2005c
    Late Woodland Period in Delaware: Observations on a Career Related to Archaeology; or, Who Speaks for the Indians, and Why? North American Archaeologist 26 (1): 37-50.
  • 2005d
    An Update on Colonial Witch Bottles. Pennsylvania Archaeologist 75 (2): 12-23.
  • 2005e
    Wampum used by Lenape and Swedes in Colonial America: A tale of sex and violence involving ‘decorative' belts of wampum. Newsletter of the Archaeological Society of New Jersey 208 (March): 1-4.
  • 2005f
    Etruscan Women at Tarquinia: Skeletal Evidence for Tomb Use. Analecta Romana Instituti Danici 31: 21-36.
  • 2005g
    The Cazzanello Perinatal Cemetery: Continuities of Etruscan Mortuary Practices into the Late Antique Period and Beyond. Studi Etruschi LXX (2004): 255 - 267.
  • 2005h
    Cremations in five hut urns in the Museo Gregoriano Etrusco: implications for Iron Age cultural diversity. Pages 485-495 in, Materiale protostorico: Etruria et Latium Vetus, by Alessandro Mandolesi. Cataloghi / Museo gregoriano etrusco, 9. Roma: "L'ERMA" di Bretschneider.
  • 2005i
    The Human Skeletal Remains. Appendix A (pages 370-383) in, Knossos Medical Faculty Site [KMF '78]: Late e Antique Graves and Other Remains, by Rebecca Sweetman. The Annual of the British School at Athens 100: 331-386.
  • 2005j
    Plaza Plan 4 en Tikal, Guatemala: The "Central Altar Group Plan" Como Influido por Contactos con México. Pages 77-86 in, Los Investigadores de la Cultura Maya 13 (Tomo I), edited by Ricardo Encalada A. Campeche: Universidad Autónoma de Campeche, Campeche.
  • 2005
    (Pages 410-411) Rita Vargiu and Marshall Joseph Becker: "Appendice: Studio Antropologiche dei Resti Scheletrici Umani. Pages 409-411 in, "Sulle ‘Tombe a Buca' di Tarquinia," by Maria Cataldi. Pages 395-411 in, Dinamiche di Sviluppo delle Città nell'Etruria Medidionale: Veio, Caere, Tarquinia, Vulci (Atti del XXIII Convegno di Studi Etruschi ed Italici, Oct. 2001, Roma, Veio, etc.). Pisa e Roma: Istituti Editoriali e Poligrafici Internazionali.


  • 2004a
    Maya Heterarchy as Inferred from Classic-Period Plaza Plans. Ancient Mesoamerica 15: 127-138.
  • 2004b
    Native Americans from Toms River: Teedyuscung and his Lenopi kin. Newsletter of the Archaeological Society of New Jersey 204 (Jan.): 1-4.
  • 2004c
    A Penobscot Wampum Belt in the Vatican Museums: A Possible Nineteenth Century Example of Native American Diplomacy. Bollettino - Monumenti, Musei e Gallerie Pontificie XXIV: 225-270.
  • 2004d
    The Archaeology of Ethnicity: Can Historical Archaeology Extract the Ciconicin from the Melting Pot of Delaware? SAA Archaeological Record (The Archaeology of Ethnicity II) Volume 4 (5): 26-28.
  • 2004e
    Etruscan skeletons of the Hellenistic period from the Casacce necropolis at Blera (Viterbo, Italy) excavated in 1982.Appendice II: Pages 175-189 in, [(LAZIO) II.] - "Blera (Viterbo). Località Casacce. - Necropoli rupestre di età ellenistica," by Gabriella Barbieri and Autori varie. Notizie degli Scavi di Antichità (Serie IX) XIII-XIV (2002-2003): 89-190.
  • 2004f
    [Nine entries in] Encyclopedia of New Jersey, edited by Maxine N. Lurie and Marc Mappen. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press. {see under Encyclopedia Entries for details).
  • 2004
    M. J. Becker and Jonathan Lainey. Wampum Belts With Initials and/or Dates. American Indian Culture and Research Journal 28 (2): 25-45.


  • 2003a
    Plaza Plans at Tikal: A Research Strategy for Inferring Social Organization and Processes of Culture Change at Lowland Maya Site. Pages 253-280 in, Tikal: Dynasties, Foreigners, & Affairs of State: Advancing Maya Archaeology, edited by Jeremy A. Sabloff. Santa Fe: School of American Research Press.
  • 2003b
    A Classic Period Barrio Producing Fine Polychrome Ceramics at Tikal, Guatemala: Notes on ancient Maya firing technology. Ancient Mesoamerica 14: 95-112.
  • 2003c
    A Bregmatic Ossicle Resembling a Trepanation from an Eleventh-Century Skeleton Excavated from a Cemetery Area now Within the Prague Castle, Czech Republic. Pages 155-162 in, Trepanation: History, Discovery, Theory, edited by Robert Arnott, Stanley Finger and C. U. M. Smith. Lisse (etc.): Swets & Zeitlinger.
  • 2003d
    Etruscan Gold Dental Appliances: Evidence for Early "Parting" of Gold in Italy through the Study of Ancient Pontics. Pages 11-27 in, Molecular and Structural Archaeology: Cosmetic and Therapeutic Chemicals, edited by Georges Tsoucaris and Janusz Lipkowski. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic (NATO Science Series, 117).
  • 2003e
    Calumet Smoke, Wampum Beads and Bird Quills: The Meanings and Materials Used by Natives in Economic Interactions with Europeans in Colonial America. Bulletin of the Archaeological Society of New Jersey 58: 19-41.
  • 2003f
    [Review essay] Beyond Kinship: Social and Material Reproduction in House Societies, edited by Rosemary A. Joyce and Susan D. Gillespie (2000); Material Culture, by Henrie Glassie 1999); and, Vernacular Architecture, by Henry Glassie (2000). Journal of American Folklore 116 (No. 460): 240-244.
  • 2003
    Marshall Joseph Becker and John Beierly. Cultural summary, Delaware. New Haven, CT: eHRAF, North America. Human Relations Area Files.