The Gordon Natural Area also serves as an education resource for learning about the natural environment. Various ongoing research and instructional activities are conducted in the GNA in order to provide students (and other visitors who are interested in ecology) a living example of how dynamic environmental systems function.
Because the GNA possess so many different types of natural land types (including: old growth forest, high/low density wooded, wetlands, edge, and stream buffer areas), as well as all of the species that are associated with these different areas, the GNA is a dynamic, living classroom for those interested in different aspects of the natural world.
Below, some of the faculty members that utilize the GNA present overviews of their research and teaching.
What is the connection between the English Romantic poet William Wordsworth and the Gordon Natural Area (GNA) at West Chester University? The GNA Steward Dr. Nur Ritter knows the answer. Schedule a tour of the GNA with Dr. Ritter and you and your students will have the opportunity to pursue a variety of topics such as William Wordsworth’s connection to an invasive species in the GNA.
For several years now, the Gordon Natural Area has served as a place for research, rejuvenation, and as a muse for students in my undergraduate and graduate English Language Arts methods courses and my general education courses (Writing 120, Literature 165, and Writing 200/204 Research Writing). Whether inspiring students to write poetry or motivating students to research issues of sustainability and local ecosystems, without fail our field trips to the GNA give students the experiential opportunities to think and create beyond the confines of the classroom walls, extending and deepening learning outcomes.
On a recent spring tour of the GNA, Dr. Ritter pointed out the cheerful yellow, buttercup type flower the Lesser Celandine to my Literature 165 students. Not only did Dr. Ritter share the history of the invasive flower as it related to the GNA but he read William Wordsworth’s poem “The Lesser Celandine” to my students. The poem and the Lesser Celandine’s place in the Gordon Natural Area provoked questions regarding culture and context, environmental issues, and the experience provided inspiration for writing topics which were carefully considered in subsequent classroom discussions.
On another field trip to the GNA, one of my Writing 120 students Byron Burger observed a hawk flying overhead. Enthralled by the entire experience, Byron penned the poems included here.
Consider opening your literal or virtual classroom door to all the Gordon Natural Area has to offer.
Find out more about Dr. Buckelew: here.
Poems by Byron Burger (Spring 2016)
How about a Haiku?
Two Rams saved Gordon
Seventeen threatened species
S is for the serenity while taking a stroll down the nature trails.
U is for understanding the importance of the native species.
S is for the stream that flows around the Gordon Nature Center.
T is for taking time away from technology to see the earth around you.
A is for planting more American Chestnut trees.
I is for investing some of your time on Arbor day to help the Gordon Nature Center.
N is for Nur and Kendra. The guides for the Gordon Nature Center.
G is for the great big tulip tree.
O is for observing the red tailed hawk.
R is for running through the nature trails.
D is for the five-hundred deer that roam through the area.
O is for the oodles of wildlife and plant species.
N is for the nursery inside the Gordon Nature Center
Walking the Trails
When walking though Gordon there’s a lot to see
Let’s talk about their collection of trees
The trio of Black Gum, Walnut, and Oak
Near the stadium, with athletes sweat soaked
Silent Giants, known for their bark not bite
See them from dawn until the dusk of night
Birds all around me, performing their song
While I explored these trails, all day long
As I was walking, there was a flash of Red
I spotted a hawk, much farther ahead
When watching this raptor, in graceful flight
I saw a true hunter, full of delight
After swooping down, on top of its prey
I saw mother nature at work, nothing more to say
Teaching Activities in the GNA
In my biology elective course, Terrestrial Ecosystem Ecology (BIO 315), students make use of the GNA in several different labs. Early in the semester, students set up a seven-week leaf decomposition experiment to examine how different abiotic conditions in the GNA affect rates of decomposition. Students return to the GNA to collect data that allows them to determine how topography affects forest aboveground biomass and carbon storage. Later in the semester, students measure both soil carbon storage and soil respiration rates in different areas of the GNA. The class uses these data to assess the influence of different types of plant cover and associated microclimates on both parameters. Throughout the semester, students gain invaluable hands-on experience with the tools of ecological analysis in the GNA, and they have the opportunity to apply theories and concepts learned in class to datasets they've collected themselves. The application of knowledge within the context of a forest ecosystem that the students know well is incredibly helpful in bringing abstract concepts discussed in class into the real world.
Additionally, I have visited the GNA with my general education course, Humans and the Environment (SCB 102), to look at how many of the topics we explore in class play out in our own backyard. We discuss issues including biodiversity, food web dynamics, and non-native plants while looking at examples in the GNA. On these visits, students are often able to make connections to other forest ecosystems they've spent time in, and they are able to see concrete examples of human influence on natural ecosystems.
Research Activities in the GNA
Over the past several years, I have worked collaboratively with both undergraduate and graduate students to carry out research in the GNA. Most recently, Biology undergraduate Alaina Bertoline completed a research project examining the influence of a power line right-of-way on forest ecological integrity. In the summer of 2014, Biology graduate student Dana Charitonchick used the GNA as one of her research sites in a study of soil seedbank dynamics in fragmented forest ecosystems of the Mid-Atlantic region. Biology graduate student Seth Keller also completed a research project in the GNA. He focused on quantifying above- and below-ground carbon storage in the forest as a way of assessing environmental services provided by the GNA. Students have presented their research findings related to the GNA at local, regional, and national conferences, helping to increase awareness of some of the challenges and opportunities associated with managing this forest.
Find out more about Dr. Schedlbauer: here.
Teaching Activities in the GNA
I use the GNA extensively in my teaching, especially for my field ecology courses (General Ecology and Vertebrate Ecology). Shown in the photo are students in Vertebrate Ecology measuring and weighing salamanders in the GNA. They will also process soil samples from the locations where salamander were present and absent, in order to determine preferences for substrate moisture. This study has been conducted every year since 1994, making it one of the longest-running studies in the GNA forested areas.
Research Activities in the GNA
Since 2006 my grad students and I have been testing and evaluating field methods for tracking populations of salamanders in the GNA. Our studies have focussed on novel designs for "coverboards," which are flat objects placed on the forest floor that tend to attract salamanders. Our most promising designs utilize a new material, Elephant Bark, which is made from recycled tires and is extremely durable. The photo shows an experimental array of 6 different coverboard designs. All are 16" squares of Elephant Bark, but they vary in thickness and in weight. The microclimate under the coverboards is being monitored by digital sensors wired to a data logger.
Find out more about Dr. Tiebout: here.
I use the Gordon Natural Area as a natural setting for teaching ecology and education course content and methods in classes I teach at WCU. For my Plant Communities (BIO 475) course, I introduce undergraduate and graduate students to various forest communities (ash, beech, and oak dominated) found at the preserve to learn tree identification and sampling methods, and to collect data on forest structure for analysis and interpretation skills development needed for research and ecology-related careers. In addition, students are able to learn about the natural history of many plant species, which is increasingly lacking in many ecological education contexts. In my Mycology course (BIO 454) I have students apply content and concepts learned in the class to the field. Students identify decomposer and mycorrhizal fungal sporocarps and habitats conducive to their growth. And in my Science Methods in the Secondary School course (SCB 350), I have students develop lesson plans and activities used for teaching middle and high school students in conjunction with natural history tutorials conducted at the preserve. Feedback from students regarding their learning experiences at the Gordon has been consistently positive, with most citing the acquisition of experimental design and field sampling skills useful in future career and research endeavors being the most notable benefits. I can think of no place better to teach ecology and science pedagogy as the Gordon Natural Area.
The Gordon Natural Area has provided me with many opportunities over the last several years to study questions related to mycorrhizal and community plant ecology. My research at the preserve has focused on two areas: (1) the influence of invasive exotic plants, like Garlic mustard, on ectomycorrhizae and (2) forest composition and structure. To date, I have mentored over 10 studies with undergraduate and graduate students that have resulted in many journal publications and presentations at regional and national conferences. These studies have yielded findings indicating that Garlic mustard reduces ectomycorrhizal abundance and species diversity on Red oaks, that exotic woody species and abundance have increased in forest habitats over several decades, and that some native hardwoods (like hickories and oaks) are still abundant, but aging, at the preserve. Currently I am mentoring student-based studies examining the effects of allelopathy (chemical competition) of the exotic invasive shrub, Amur honeysuckle, on the germination and seedling growth of hickory and oak species, with the goal of providing information on how this species may impact the regeneration of native hardwood species at the preserve and other regional forests.
Find out more about Dr. Turner: here.
The Spotted Lanternfly (Lycorma delicatula) is an invasive insect that has recently been introduced into the United States. This species, which is native to China and Southeast Asia, was first detected in the US in Berks County (Pennsylvania) during Fall 2014. The Spotted Lanternfly has quickly spread throughout southeastern Pennsylvania and adjacent states: by January of 2018, the species had been found in 13 counties in southeastern PA.
This species utilizes numerous agricultural and native plant species and potentially threatens billions of dollars of agricultural production. Stone fruits (e.g., plums, cherries, peaches, etc.), apples, grapes and hops are particularly vulnerable. The USDA has been very proactive in dealing with this threat, having allocated 17.5 million dollars in funding to fight against the Spotted Lanternfly. The State has also been aggressive in addressing this threat, with the Pennsylvania General Assembly allocating an additional 3 million dollars towards control efforts.
The Gordon Natural Area could potentially be heavily impacted by the Spotted Lanternfly. The species is a very adept 'hitch-hiker' and the close proximity of Route 202 to the GNA provides an easy pathway for that species to become established in this area. Three species of native grapes are known for the GNA, and an infestation of Spotted Lanternfly would undoubtedly threaten these species. Additionally, Spotted Lanternfly is known to utilize pines, so the native White Pines (Pinus strobus) at the GNA are also vulnerable. The lanternfly is obligately associated with the invasive tree Ailanthus altissimus (Tree of Heaven). There are two fairly large 'stands' of this tree at the Gordon, and numerous additional individuals of Tree of Heaven are scattered throughout the GNA.
To determine the status of the Spotted Lanternfly and Tree of Heaven at the Gordon, undergraduate Christopher (Kit) Catranis initiated a surveillance and prevention project in the late Spring of 2018. Initially, the work focused on mapping out (exhaustively) accurate locations of Tree of Heaven throughout the GNA. The first Spotted Lanternflies were noted in the Gordon in the Summer of 2018, and the map has been continually updated by Kit and by the GNA staff as additional lanternflies were encountered. Kit has also made this map available for any relevant research efforts in the GNA.
In the Fall of 2018, Kit organized a group 'extermination' effort, in which volunteers visited the greater portion of the known individuals of Tree of Heaven and killed any Spotted Lanternflies that were observed and which were reachable from the ground. Kit also has been surveying for lanternfly egg masses. To date, no egg masses have been found.
Based on areal photos, the Gordon Natural Area (GNA) has been continually forested since at least 1937. There is evidence that the GNA was used as a woodlot during colonial times, but it appears that it was never clear-cut nor used agriculturally.
We were interested in learning the maximum age of the older GNA trees, so we cored and counted the rings of some of the larger diameter trees (70 + cm dbh) using an increment borer. This is a great technique because it allows us to determine tree age without causing significant damage. The species chosen for coring were, American Beech (Fagus grandifolia), Northern Red Oak (Quercus rubra), White Oak (Quercus alba), Tulip Poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera), Black Tupelo (Nyssa sylvatica), and Hickory (Carya sp.).Of the nine trees sampled to date, ages ranged from 80-200 years old.
Knowing the range of the trees age will allow those studying the site to more confidently compare the GNA to other Eastern deciduous forests of known stand age.
NOTE: The GNA website is very much a work in progress. Please check back as we continue to update it.