2014 – 2015
Office of Admissions
Emil H. Messikomer Hall
100 W. Rosedale Avenue
West Chester, PA 19383
Revised August 2018
|Academic Integrity Policy||Dual Degrees||Minor Fields of Study|
|Academic Recovery Plan||Exception to Academic Policies||Name Changes|
|Academic Renewal Policy||Excused Absences||Overloads|
|ADA Policy Statement||Exemption from Finals||Pass/Fail Policy|
|Adding a Course||Experiential Learning Credits
(Life Learning Experience)
|Probation and Dismissal|
|Advanced Placement|| Family Educational Rights and
|Readmission of Dismissed Students|
|Anticipated Time for Degree Completion||Full-Time Status||Repeating Courses|
|Attendance Policy||GPA, Cumulative||Resident Credit Requirement|
|Auditing Courses||Grade Appeals||Scheduling Courses|
|Changing Majors||Grade Changes||School Assignments (Field Experiences)||Clearance Requirements for Field Experiences||Grade Reports||Second Degrees|
|Credit by Exam||Grading System||Student Standing|
|Dean's List||Graduate Credit||Taking Courses Off Campus|
|Degree Classification-Definitions||Graduation Honors||Taking Courses Out of Sequence|
|Directory Information||Graduation Requirements||Transcripts|
|Disruptive Classroom Behavior||Independent Study||Transfer of Credit/
Transfer Credit Appeals Process
|Double Major||Individualized Instruction||Withdrawal from University|
|Dropping a Course||Intention to Graduate, Required Notice||Withdrawing from a Course|
|Withdrawal - Involuntary Medical|
Degree Candidates–all undergraduates admitted to a degree program or to the undeclared major by the Office of Admissions or through approved internal transfer recorded in the Office of the Registrar.
Nondegree Students–students permitted to enroll part time (maximum nine credits per semester and seven credits for winter and summer terms) for course work toward professional development, personal growth, or certification. Recent high school graduates (within the previous three years) are required to meet the admission standards of the University. Transfer students may enroll nondegree if they have attempted less than 30 credits and have a 2.00 grade point average. High school students may attend on a nondegree basis with written permission of their high school principal or guidance counselor. Nondegree students may attempt a maximum of 18 credits. Upon reaching 18 credits, students must have a 2.00 GPA or the department’s required GPA to be eligible for admission to a degree program or to request permission to enroll with professional development status.
The student's standing is determined by the number of semester hours of credit earned as follows:
|Freshman||0-29.5 semester hours of credit (inclusive)|
|Sophomore||30-59.5 semester hours of credit (inclusive)|
|Junior||60-89.5 semester hours of credit (inclusive)|
|Senior||90 or more semester hours of credit|
A full-time class load ranges from 12 to 18 semester hours of credit. Credits attempted or earned through the process of Credit by Examination are not counted in the student class load.
An overload is enrollment in more than 18 credit hours in the fall or spring semester, or more than seven credit hours in an individual summer or winter session. The minimum cumulative GPA required to carry an overload is 2.75.
Permission will not be granted for more than 24 credit hours in a fall or spring semester or 10 credit hours in an individual summer or winter session.
In order to schedule an overload, students must complete an Add Overload form and submit it to the Office of the Registrar by the end of the add period. The application for an overload must be signed by the student’s academic adviser and the chairperson of the department in which the student is majoring.
Students who carry more than 18 credits in a fall or spring semester will be responsible for additional tuition charges at the standard rate per credit hour.
Students are assigned early field and student teaching experiences at schools with which the University has a formal agreement. Students will not be assigned to schools that they attended or where members of their families are employed or attend.
Special requests for school assignments will be considered by the student's major department.
Effective fall 1999, before an undergraduate student may register for independent study or research, practicum, internship, externship, or any field placement, he or she must have an overal GPA of 2.00 or higher, and a GPA of 2.00 or higher in his or her major courses.
This policy does not supersede current departmental policies that have established higher standards. This policy does not prevent departments from setting higher GPA standards for undergraduate students within their major. Departments may also establish a minimum required GPA for all cognate courses for undergraduate students who wish to register for any of these courses.
An individual may pursue a second degree at West Chester University after earning the first degree either at West Chester or some other institution. Such an individual must apply for admission through the Office of Admissions as a transfer student and earn at least 30 hours of West Chester University credit beyond the requirements of the initial baccalaureate program. In addition, a student must take at least 50% of the courses in his /her major or minor discipline (excluding cognate courses) at West Chester University. All requirements for the curriculum in which the second degree is earned must be satisfied. A given course required in both the degree programs is not repeated for the second degree.
A student who has successfully completed at least 30 credits of work at West Chester University may petition to pursue a second undergraduate degree concurrently with the first, such as a B.S. in computer science and a B.F.A. in art. If admitted to a second degree program, the student must, to receive both degrees at graduation, earn at least 30 credits beyond the requirements of the baccalaureate program with the fewest required credits for a minimum of 150 credits. When a student is enrolled in dual degree programs:
A student may select two majors within the same degree. In this case, a student must meet all of the requirements for both majors. The student should consult regularly with advisers from both programs. Students wishing to pursue two types of baccalaureate degrees (B.A., B.F.A., B.M., B.S., B.S.Ed., B.S.N.) should see Dual Degrees section above.
Students who have enough flexibility in their major curriculum to fulfill the requirements of a minor must fill out and submit a minor selection application to the Office of the Registrar. To enroll in a minor field of study, students must have the permission of both their major and their proposed minor departments. Admission to the minor does not guarantee admission to the major. Students must complete 18 to 30 hours of courses selected in consultation with the minor program adviser. At least 50 percent of minor course work must be taken at West Chester. Also, beginning with students entering in the fall 1993 semester, students must earn a minimum GPA of 2.00 in the set of courses taken for a minor in order to receive transcript recognition of that minor. Certain minor programs may require a higher minimum GPA. Students should consult with the minor program adviser.
Minors available at West Chester University include the following:
|Accounting||Dance (Performance)||Information Technology||PK-8 Grades Mathematics|
|African/African American Literature||Earth Sciences||International Business||Political Science|
|African American Studies||Economics||Italian||Professional Education|
|American Studies||Elementary Education||Jazz Studies||Psychology|
|Anthropology||Elementary School Mathematics||Journalism||Reading|
|Art History||Environmental Health||Latin||Religious Studies|
|Astronomy||Ethnic Studies||Latin American and Latino Studies||Russian|
|Athletic Coaching||Exercise Science||Linguistics||Russian Studies|
|Autism Education||Film Criticism||Literature||Science Education|
|Business and Technical Writing||French||Music||Spanish|
|Business Geographics and Information Systems||Geography||Music History||Special Education|
|Chemistry||Geology||Music Performance||Studio Art|
|Computer Science||Health Science||Peace and Conflict Studies||Web Technology and Application|
|Contemplative Studies||History||Philosophy||Women's and Gender Studies|
|Creative Writing||Holocaust Studies||Physical Education for Individuals with Disabilities||Youth Empowerment and Urban Studies||Criminal Justice||Physics|
Specific course requirements may be obtained from the minor program advisers.
A student wishing to transfer from one program of study at the University to another program must file a change of major form in the Office of the Registrar. The student must meet the standards for admission to the desired program and must obtain written permission from the department involved. Any courses that were initially accepted for transfer credit from another college are subject to re-evaluation by the department to which the student transfers internally.
Students may add a course through the myWCU portal if the course has available seats and all prerequisites have been met. If the course is closed, the student needs to fill out an add closed course form and have it signed by the instructor or department chair. Students may not add courses to their schedule after the add period is over, which is the seventh calendar day of a typical semester (fall/spring). This could be a weekend day.
Students may drop any course from their schedule through the myWCU portal during the drop period. This drop period is during the first six calendar days of a typical semester (fall/spring). This could end on a weekend day. After drop/add, students must complete a withdrawal form and submit it to the Office of the Registrar before the end of the ninth week of classes. Courses dropped after the drop/add period are considered a withdrawal and will be noted on the transcript with a “W.”
Students may not schedule more than one section of the same course in any given semester.
A grade of W (withdraw) will be entered on the academic record of any student who withdraws from a course after the drop/add period and before the end of the ninth class week or the equivalent in summer sessions. A student may not withdraw from a course to avoid an academic integrity violation.
After the ninth week of classes, students may not withdraw selectively from courses; they must contact the Office of the Registrar and withdraw from the University. The University will record a "W" for all courses in which the student is registered. However, if the effective date of official withdrawal is during the last week of classes, a letter grade or NG will be assigned for that course. A student may not receive a W during the last week of classes.
STUDENTS WHO FAIL TO WITHDRAW FROM OR DROP A COURSE OFFICIALLY CAN EXPECT TO RECEIVE A FAILING GRADE FOR THE COURSE AND ARE FINANCIALLY RESPONSIBLE TO PAY FOR IT.
Students wishing to withdraw from the University may go to the Office of the Registrar or submit their withdrawal to the office in writing. Written notification is required for all withdrawals. If illness or some other emergency interrupts the student's University work necessitating withdrawal, he or she must notify the Office of the Registrar at once.
Unless a student withdraws officially, F grades will be recorded for unfinished courses.
To foster an environment conducive to learning and assure the safety of the community, the University takes appropriate measures to address student conduct that is destructive to self or others or results in serious disruption of the learning environment. In extraordinary circumstances, the University may require a student to involuntarily withdraw from the University when it determines that the student poses a significant risk of harm and this measure is the only way to protect the student and/or others and/or to preserve the integrity of the learning environment.
Please refer to the following website for the entire West Chester University Involuntary Medical Withdrawal Policy: http://www.wcupa.edu/_services/stu.inf/documents/WCU-InvoluntaryMedicalWithdrawalPolicy.pdf.
Students may not enroll for credit in a more elementary course in a sequence after having satisfactorily passed a more advanced course in that sequence. For example, a student may not enroll for credit in French 101 after having satisfactorily passed French 201. Similarly, students who enroll in a course that requires less proficiency than placement or proficiency tests indicate they possess may be denied credit towards graduation.
The Repeat Policy is divided into two sections, i.e., a policy covering developmental courses (Q00-level) that do not count towards graduation, and a policy covering college-level courses.
Undergraduate students who take and complete a course at West Chester may not repeat the course at another institution and have the credits or grade count towards a West Chester degree.
Undergraduates who take a course for graduate credit are subject to the graduate repeat policy. See the Graduate Catalog for information.
Because all students must take and pass WRT 120 to graduate, a student who fails this course after three attempts will be dismissed immediately following the third failure, regardless of GPA.
The first time a student completes a course for a grade it is considered the first attempt. The second time a student completes a course for a grade it is considered the second attempt and the first repeat. The third time a student completes a course for a grade it is considered the third attempt and is the second repeat. The most recent grade (regardless of whether it is higher or lower) and credit will be used for the GPA calculation. Students who complete a course with a fourth attempt or more are in violation of the Repeat Policy and will not earn credit.
Anyone may attend the University for the sole purpose of auditing courses by first scheduling for the course, paying the regular fee, and then completing an audit application form available from the Office of the Registrar. An undergraduate student may declare "audit" status in a course through the end of the ninth week of class but may only audit one course per semester. Faculty may refuse to grant auditor status. Full-time students have the privilege of auditing, provided they obtain approval from the course instructor and the course does not create an overload situation. If an overload results, students are assessed the per-credit rate for each credit in excess of 18. Part-time students may audit, provided they obtain the instructor's approval, enroll in the course through the Office of the Registrar, and pay the regular course fees.
Credit is never given to auditors. The auditor status may not be changed after it has been declared. The grade of audit (AU) is recorded on the student's transcript. An audited course will not fulfill any requirement toward graduation including interdisciplinary, diverse communities, and writing emphasis attributes.
Forms to register for credit by examination are available from the Office of the Registrar. Credit by Exam fees will be equivalent to the College-Level Examination Program fee. Contact the Office of the Registrar for current information.
Credit by examination is a privilege subject to the following conditions:
NOTE: Students who have taken a course but have not achieved a satisfactory grade may not apply for credit by examination for the same course.
Many departments offer an independent study course for students with demonstrated ability and special interests. This course is appropriate when a student has a specialized and compelling academic interest that cannot be pursued within the framework of a regular course. Students must obtain departmental permission for independent study courses. An overall GPA of 2.00 or higher and a minimum GPA of 2.00 in a student's major courses are required. The independent study form is available in the Office of the Registrar.
Individualized instruction is the teaching of a regular, listed catalog course to a single student. Individualized instruction is offered only when the University has canceled or failed to offer a course according to schedule. Students must obtain departmental permission for individual instruction. The individualized instruction form is available in the Office of the Registrar.
A senior (90 credits or more) pursuing a bachelor's degree who has an overall grade point average of 3.00 may, with the permission of the major adviser, course professor, department chair of the course, the dean of graduate studies and extended education, and the associate provost, enroll in up to six credits of graduate-level course work. The student must be at the senior level with the designated grade point average at the time the course begins.
If the course is dual numbered, the undergraduate must take the undergraduate-level course and apply it towards the bachelor's degree. If the course is not dual numbered, but at the 500 level or above, the course may count either as undergraduate credit towards the bachelor's degree or as graduate credit.
If the student wishes to have the credits count towards the bachelor's degree, the student must submit a completed "application for an undergraduate student to take a graduate course for undergraduate credit.'' The form is available in the Office of the Registrar. If, on the other hand, the student wishes to have the credits count towards a graduate degree, he or she must submit a completed "application for an undergraduate student to take a graduate course for graduate credit.'' The form is available in the Graduate Office. To receive graduate-level credit, the student also must submit a properly completed and approved graduate school admissions form to the Office of Graduate Studies before completing the appropriate form.
Individual departments have the right to implement more stringent academic standards for courses within their departments. Any student not meeting University or departmental standards when the appropriate semester begins will not be permitted to enroll.
If a course is taken for undergraduate credit, no additional fees will be required. If a course is taken for graduate credit, the student must pay graduate tuition and applicable fees for that course. A student not carrying 12 hours of undergraduate credits will be charged at the appropriate hourly tuition rates for both the undergraduate and graduate credits. All other fees will be charged at the undergraduate level.
No more than six credits taken under this policy may be applied to the master's degree. Students may not elect to change between undergraduate and graduate credit after the term or semester has begun.
Undergraduate students approved to take a graduate course for undergraduate credit are bound by the undergraduate catalog policy on repeats and withdrawals. Undergraduate students approved to take a graduate course for graduate credit are bound by the graduate catalog policy on repeats and withdrawals.
Each professor will determine a class attendance policy and publish it in his or her syllabus at the beginning of each semester. When a student fails to comply with the policy, the professor has the right to assign a grade consistent with his or her policy as stated in the syllabus. Absences cannot be used as the sole criterion for assigning a final grade in a course. Excused absences, in accordance with the Excused Absences Policy for University-Sanctioned Events, will not result in a penalty, provided the student follows this policy. University departments or programs may establish attendance policies to govern their sections as long as those policies fall within these guidelines.
Undergraduate students participating in University-sanctioned events such as, but not limited to, the Marching Band, musical ensembles, theatre group, athletic events, forensics competition, etc., will be granted an excused absence(s) by the respective faculty members for class periods missed. Students will be granted the privilege of taking, at an alternative time to be determined by the professor, scheduled examinations or quizzes that will be missed. The professor will designate such times prior to the event. Professors can provide a fair alternative to taking the examination or quiz that will be missed. Students must submit original documentation on University letterhead signed by the activity director, coach, or adviser detailing the specifics of the event in advance. Specific requirements include the following:
The following are specifics for the student athlete:
Students who have attained an A or B prior to the finals, have completed all other course requirements, and have the instructors' permission may waive final examinations. This privilege is subject to several reservations.
The course grade will be the A or B earned exclusive of a final examination grade.
|Grade||Quality Points||Percentage Equivalents||Interpretation|
|A||4.000||93 - 100||Excellent|
|A-||3.670||90 - 92|
|B+||3.330||87 - 89||Superior|
|B||3.000||83 - 86|
|B-||2.670||80 - 82|
|C+||2.330||77 - 79||Average|
|C||2.000||73 - 76|
|C-||1.670||70 - 72|
|D+||1.330||67 - 69||Below Average|
|D||1.000||63 - 66|
|D-||0.670||60 - 62|
|F||0.000||59 or lower||Failure|
|Z||0.000||59 or lower||Failure|
IP (In Progress): Given to indicate work in progress and will be used only for courses involving work that is expected to extend beyond the end of the term, such as practica, internships, recitals, and research reports. A grade of IP is changed to an F automatically if the requirements have not been completed by the end of the 9th week of the equivalent semester in the following year. No student may graduate with an IP on the transcript.
NG (No Grade): Given when a student fails to complete course requirements by the end of a semester for a valid reason. See "Grade Changes."
W (Withdrawal): Given when a student withdraws from a course between the end of the first and the end of the ninth class week of the semester or the equivalent in summer sessions.
Y (Administrative Withdrawal): Given under appeal when there is documentation that the student never, in fact, attended class. Other extenuating circumstances regarding administrative withdrawal may be reviewed by the associate provost. No refunds are associated with this grade.
Z Grade: A grade received when a student stops attending a course and fails to officially withdraw from it. The grade is counted the same way that an F would count toward the cumulative average.
The grade assigned to the student must reflect the percentage equivalent of the plus, minus, and straight grades earned in a course.
The cumulative grade point average (GPA), sometimes called the cumulative index, is determined by dividing the total quality points earned for courses by the total credit hours attempted. The following example is based on a single semester:
| Credit Hours
|Grade|| Quality Points
| Quality Points
Earned for Course
|1st subject||4||A||4||4 x 4 =||16|
|2nd subject||3||B||3||3 x 3 =||9|
|3rd subject||3||C||2||2 x 3 =||6|
|4th subject||3||D||1||1 x 3 =||3|
|5th subject||2||F||0||0 x 2 =||0|
34 divided by 15 equals a GPA of 2.27.
All grades received during a student's enrollment (except the grades of P and NG, and except when a second attempt produces a higher course grade and a grade replacement takes place) are included in the cumulative GPA. Grades from other colleges are excluded.
A student’s grades and GPA cannot change once he or she has graduated. The University will “seal” the GPA at the time of baccalaureate graduation, and if a student returns for post-baccalaureate or for second-degree work, then a new GPA will be started.
Any grade awarded other than NG is final. Final grades can be changed only when there is a clerical or computational error. A newly disclosed diagnosis of a disability may not be used as reason for requesting a grade change or removal. If the student thinks there is an error, the student must report the alleged error in writing to the professor as soon as possible, but no later than the end of the fifth week of the following semester. If a grade change is warranted, the professor must submit a change of grade request to the Office of the Registrar not later than the end of the ninth week of the semester. Final grades cannot be changed after the ninth week of the semester following the alleged error.
If a student did not complete course requirements because of a valid reason, such as a serious illness or death in the family, a grade of NG may be assigned at the discretion of the professor. The professor will also determine the manner in which the course is to be completed and the deadline for completion. In no case may the period of completion extend beyond nine weeks into the next semester. No student may graduate with an NG on the transcript.
A GRADE OF NG IS CHANGED TO AN F AUTOMATICALLY IF THE REQUIREMENTS HAVE NOT BEEN COMPLETED BY THE END OF THE NINTH WEEK OF THE FOLLOWING SEMESTER. (The instructor must file a change of an NG grade in the Office of the Registrar by the middle of the tenth week of the semester.)
A graduating senior has only 30 calendar days after the end of the term in which he or she intends to graduate to complete all degree requirements, including the removal of NG's.
The Grade Appeals Policy applies only to questions of student evaluation. Since appeals involve questions of judgment, the Grade Appeals Board will not recommend that a grade be revised in the student's favor unless there is clear evidence that the original grade was based on prejudiced or capricious judgment, or was inconsistent with official University policy. Please refer to the Academic Integrity Policy for cases where the grade appeal involves a grade given for academic dishonesty.
Any situation involving a violation of academic integrity is of major concern to the University. Faculty members preserve and transmit the values of the academic community through example in their own academic pursuits and through the learning environment that they create for their students. They are expected to instill in their students a respect for integrity and an understanding of the importance of honesty within their chosen profession. Faculty must also take measures to discourage student academic dishonesty.
Commitment to maintaining and encouraging high standards of academic integrity is demonstrated in many ways. One way is through the establishment of policies and procedures governing violation of the standards of academic integrity. The following policies, procedures, and definitions are intended to help faculty meet these responsibilities.
First, the instructor has both the right and responsibility to demand academic honesty if a student is to remain in good standing in the course and is to be evaluated fairly by the instructor. A grade certifies both knowledge and a standard of academic integrity. It is essential that the instructor retain the right to set the minimum academic penalty for academic dishonesty in a course, subject to the appeal rights of a student.
Second, cheating is not just a matter between an instructor and student in a specific course. While it is the right and duty of the instructor to set minimum penalties for dishonesty in a particular course, the University is responsible for the minimum standards of academic integrity and achievement on which degrees are based. It is the University that permits students to remain members of the academic community and finally certifies that students have attained sufficient academic credit and exhibited acceptable standards of conduct to entitle them to a degree. Incidents of academic dishonesty, especially when they recur and become patterns of dishonest behavior, require that the University be in position to use more severe disciplinary measures than those available to the professor, including expulsion of the student from the University. It is therefore imperative that individual instances of academic dishonesty, accompanied by details concerning penalties, become a part of the student's academic record.
Third, students accused of academic dishonesty have the right to have their case heard in a fair and impartial manner, with all the safeguards available within the bounds of due process.
As responsible members of the academic community, students are obligated to comply with the basic standards of integrity. They are also expected to take an active role in encouraging other members to respect those standards. Should a student have reason to believe that a violation of academic integrity has occurred, he/she is encouraged to make the suspicion known to a member of the faculty or University administration. Students should familiarize themselves with the University's policies, procedures, and definitions of types of violations, as provided in the Undergraduate Catalog.
Violations of the academic integrity standards of West Chester University fall into six broadly defined categories listed below.
Faculty are responsible for determining the grades earned in their courses, and they are the first step in determining if a violation of academic integrity has occurred. They are also the first individuals to determine what penalty should be levied. A faculty member responsible for assigning final grades in a course may acquire evidence, either directly or through information supplied by others, that a student violation of academic integrity may have occurred. After collecting the evidence available, the faculty member will meet with the student to present the evidence of an alleged violation and request an explanation.
If the faculty member accepts the student's explanation, no further action is taken. If the faculty member determines that a violation has occurred, the faculty member informs the student, within five days of his/her decision, in writing, of the penalty that will be imposed. The faculty member will also inform the student of his/her right to file an appeal within 10 days of the faculty member's decision.
Once a faculty member has charged a student with academic dishonesty, the student may not withdraw from the course to avoid a grade penalty or to prevent the filing of the Report of Violation of Academic Integrity. Any student who withdraws from a course before the charge is made may be reregistered for the course so that appropriate action can be taken.
The faculty member fills out and forwards a copy of the Report of Violation of Academic Integrity, together with any additional supporting documentation, to his/her department chairperson. In departments that have a departmental Academic Integrity Board, the faculty member will forward the information to the departmental board. The department chair (or chair of the departmental board) will forward the information to the college dean. If the faculty member is the department chair and there is no departmental board, the report will be sent directly to the dean. The dean will then forward the information to the associate provost or his/her designee. The report includes
If the faculty member who accuses the student and files the report is the department chair, and there is no departmental board, the college dean is the first step in the appeal process.
If the student is subsequently found not guilty of the charge, the student may either:
If the student is found guilty of violating the student Academic Integrity Policy, the student may not withdraw from the course and will receive the sanction imposed by the instructor or other academic authority.
All acts of academic dishonesty violate standards essential to the existence of an academic community. Most offenses are properly handled and remedied by the faculty member teaching the course in which they occur. The penalties that may be assessed by the faculty member include the following:
The faculty member may also request that his/her department chairperson contact the appropriate dean and request that an Academic Integrity Board be convened, for the purpose of imposing further sanctions. See below for a list of possible sanctions.
Whatever the penalty, the report describing the incident and recording the decision will be kept by the associate provost's designee until the student has graduated and the degree has been awarded. In addition, the associate provost will forward a copy of the report to the student's major department chairperson. Individual departments may establish a "zero tolerance" policy for their majors. Students must be clearly informed of such a policy by those departments.
The purpose of this record keeping is to ensure that students who violate the University's student Academic Integrity Policy a second time are dealt with appropriately. A second purpose is to deter students from repeating offenses. A record of the first-offense is kept in the student's academic file in the Office of the Associate Provost as an internal record and is not available to faculty who may be bringing charges against a student. Information as to whether or not such a file exists is available to individuals or committees who are writing letters of reference for students, when the form asks if the student has ever been sanctioned for academic dishonesty. The file is destroyed once the student's degree is awarded.
A second violation of the Academic Integrity Policy may result in formal charges being brought against the student. In addition to the sanctions listed above, sanctions for a second or subsequent violation may include
In the determination of penalties, the following factors may be considered:
A student may appeal the instructor's unilateral imposition of a reduced or failing grade. A student who files an appeal within 10 days of the faculty member's determination will suffer no worse penalty as a result of the appeal than he/she would have suffered if he/she had not appealed the instructor's unilateral action. A student who files an appeal to the next level must do so within 10 days. The Request for Appeal should contain any and all information that the student believes is relevant to his/her case. After the initial appeal to and decision by the department chair, the student will have five days to appeal the decision to the appropriate dean, if he/she so wishes.
The progression of the appeal involves the following:
If the faculty member who has brought the charges is also the chair of the department, the appeal moves directly to the college dean.
The Academic Integrity Board may be convened under any of three sets of circumstances.
The chair will provide notice to all parties which shall include a summary of the matter for disposition, as well as the time and place of the hearing. The student charged will also be advised as to the identity of those sitting on as part of the Academic Integrity Board and witnesses that will be presented by the charging party. Hearings shall proceed to the extent possible according to the following form:
The board chair shall have authority and be responsible for maintaining an orderly procedure throughout the hearing. All hearings are closed proceedings; witnesses may be excluded from the room until the appropriate time for their testimony. The burden of proof rests on the individual bringing charges. All matters upon which the decision will be based must be introduced into evidence at the hearing.
Both parties shall have the right to be assisted by advisers, who may be attorneys, and who may be present at hearings. The board chair must be notified in advance of the hearing who the advisers will be. The advisers may only consult and interact privately with their advisees, and may not address the board. Advisers who are disruptive to the process will be asked to leave the proceedings, and the matter will go forward absent their involvement.
All hearings will be recorded. The audio recording of the hearing will be archived in the Office of the Provost, or his/her designee, for five years. A written transcript of the hearing will be provided at the expense of the University pursuant to a validly issued subpoena.
A written recommendation based on a preponderance of evidence, arrived at by majority vote, in which the facts and reasons for the recommendation are set forth shall be issued within 15 calendar days, after the close of the board proceedings. That report shall be sent to the provost and vice president for academic affairs, with copies to all parties, including the deans and the appropriate department chair. The copy to the accused will be sent certified mail, return receipt requested, and first class mail. Within 15 calendar days, the provost shall implement the recommendation of the board, or shall provide a written response containing his/her decision, and explaining to all parties his/her reasons for declining to implement the board's recommendation. In the event that the provost finds inadequacies in the record, the matter can be remanded back to the board for additional testimony.
Any party who fails without appropriate reason to appear at the hearing consents to the conduction of the hearing in his or her absence and for a final decision to be made based on the facts presented.
The board retains the right to continue a hearing whenever necessary and appropriate.
Either party may express its reaction in writing regarding the recommendation of the board to the provost or his/her designee within seven calendar days of receipt of the recommendation. If the seventh day falls on a weekend or holiday, the seventh day will be the first day that the University is open for business. Written submissions should be submitted to the provost. Any stay of sanction shall be granted only upon application to and at the sole discretion of the provost or his/her designee. The decision of the provost shall be final. If the penalty being levied is an "F" in the course, the provost will direct the registrar to enter the grade of "F" in the student's record.
NOTE: A written statement of the decision and relevant materials shall be placed in the student's academic file and sent to the student's academic adviser and department chair. In the absence of a student appeal, the recommended sanctions from the department and dean's level should be forwarded from the dean's office to the provost for action. Any actions taken by the provost will be sent to the director of the Office of Student Conduct. A disciplinary file will be established as a permanent record of these actions.
At the conclusion of the appeals process, a student may be exonerated or subject to any combination of the following range of penalties. If the student is found in violation of the Academic Integrity Policy, the board will not impose a penalty that is more severe than the one recommended by the faculty member for that infraction. The board shall have no knowledge of any record of previous acts of academic dishonesty when making its initial adjudication of the case.
2. Hold on records: The University may withhold transcripts, grades, degrees, diplomas, or other official records pending the disposition of cases.
3. If the student has a record of past violations of the Student Academic Integrity Policy, that student is subject to additional sanctions based upon the fact that he/she has a prior record of dishonesty. After the board recommends the penalty for the case in question, the board will be provided with the student's past record, if any exists. The board shall review that record and consider imposing a more stringent penalty, to include any of the penalties listed above.
The names of degree-seeking students who complete 12 or more graded hours in an academic semester and achieve a semester GPA of 3.670 or better are placed on the dean's list. Nondegree students who complete a minimum of nine credits, have a GPA of 3.670, and no grade below a B in the semester also will be recognized on that semester's dean's list.
A student's scholastic standing at the University is indicated by his or her cumulative grade point average (GPA). Three categories of academic standing have been established: good academic standing, probation, and dismissal. A student remains in good academic standing as long as he or she maintains a minimum cumulative GPA of 2.00 for all work taken at the University. Probation and dismissal are actions taken by the University when a student's GPA falls below an acceptable level at the end of the fall or spring term.
Probation is defined as a trial period during which a student whose cumulative average has fallen below acceptable standards must bring his or her average up to those standards or be dismissed from the University.
An academic review is conducted at the end of each fall and spring semester, and at the end of the second summer session. Students are placed on probation or returned to good academic standing, depending upon their cumulative GPA. Students may be dismissed from the University only at the end of the fall or spring semester. The University will notify, in writing, each student who goes on academic probation or who is dismissed for academic reasons.
If a student is approved to be readmitted to the University under the Academic Renewal Policy and the student was, prior to separation from the University, a candidate in a program leading to initial teacher certification (B.S.Ed., B.M. in music education, or B.S. in health and physical education - teacher certification), he or she may not be readmitted to the original major. The academic renewal student must re-enter in a nonteacher certification degree program or as an undeclared student.
If a student readmitted under academic renewal subsequently qualifies for formal admission to teacher education based upon the provisions of the Academic Renewal Policy, that student may seek a change of major to a teacher certification program under the prevailing internal transfer policy of the specific program.
It is the responsibility of the student to schedule an appointment with his/her academic adviser as soon as possible after learning that he/she is on probation. The meeting should take place no later than the third day of the first semester on probation to allow time to adjust that semester's schedule, if necessary. The student will develop an Academic Recovery Plan (ARP) at that meeting, with the adviser's assistance.
The ARP is intended to identify the problems that contributed to a student going on academic probation and list steps that he/she will take to correct the problems. Students must commit to the changes in behavior necessary to achieve academic success. Steps to be taken might include regular class attendance, repeating failed courses, decreasing the number of credits attempted in a semester, taking reading/study skills courses, decreasing the amount of time spent working or in extracurricular activities, or taking a semester off to deal with personal or financial problems. The completed ARP electronic form is copied to the student, the adviser, and the office of the special academic assistant.
The Office of the Associate Provost through the special assistant for student policy, at its discretion, offers academic renewal to students at the time they apply for readmission.
A. The Academic Renewal Policy permits West Chester University undergraduates whose GPA and total credits earned make it impossible for them to graduate from West Chester University under any form of readmission, even if they were granted five more repeats. Students can be readmitted only once under the Academic Renewal Policy, and it is not retroactive if a student has previously been readmitted. Students who were previously enrolled in an education degree program, see paragraph B below.
B. If a student is approved for readmission to the University under the academic renewal policy and the student was, prior to separation from the University, a candidate in a program leading to initial teacher certification (B.S.Ed., B.M. in music education, or B.S. in health and physical education - teacher certification), he or she may not be readmitted to the original major. The academic renewal student must re-enter either in a program that does not lead to teacher certification, or as an undeclared student.
West Chester University students may take courses off campus and transfer the credits. Credit for these courses will transfer in to West Chester University only if the student's cumulative GPA from the institution where the courses are taken is 2.00 or higher on a 4.00 grading scale. Grades received in courses taken at other institutions are not calculated in the West Chester cumulative GPA; only the credits may be transferred. All minimum grade requirements of the student's major/minor program for individual courses also must be met for credit to transfer. The equivalency of the desired course must be established before the student takes the course off campus. Prerequisites also must be met before the courses will be transferred into the University.
Departments determine which courses at other schools are equivalent to specific courses in their department so that they can evaluate incoming transfer credits. They must inform the Office of the Registrar of those equivalencies, and the Registrar must keep a record of those equivalencies. If equivalency has been established for incoming transfer students, it also exists for matriculated West Chester students who wish to take the course off campus.
The student should contact the Office of the Registrar to determine which course is equivalent. If an agreement exists, the Office of the Registrar will specify the course to be taken and sign the form to indicate equivalency. If there is no record of equivalency for this course at the student's chosen school, the office cannot sign the form. In those cases, the student must contact the chair of the West Chester University department that offers the course and have equivalency determined. The signature of the registrar or the course's department chair indicates equivalency only; it does not grant or deny approval to take the course off campus.
Procedure: To ensure that equivalencies are current, the Office of the Registrar will establish a schedule for obtaining current syllabi and supporting documents from institutions that are most frequently involved in transfer credit evaluations. The Office of the Registrar will make this information available to department chairs to assist them in updating equivalency evalutions.
NOTE: Undergraduate students who take and complete a course at West Chester University may not repeat the course at another institution and have the credits or grade count towards a West Chester degree.
Credit may be granted for equivalent courses completed in accredited institutions of higher education. Credit for work completed at an unaccredited institution may be granted on the recommendation of the student’s major department in consultation with the school or college dean and transfer credit analyst. (See also "Admission to West Chester" and the section on "Taking Courses Off Campus.")
Grades of D or above are accepted for transfer if the credit is for equivalent courses within the framework of general education requirements or free electives, provided the transferred course does not satisfy a major field requirement as well. For a D or above to transfer in, the student must have a 2.00 overall GPA from the institution from which he or she is transferring.
Grades in a course submitted for transfer as a major program requirement must be the same or higher than the minimum grade required by the department. For example, if a program requires that a student earn a B or better in a major program requirement, then the student requesting transferring credit from another institution must have earned a minimum of B in the parallel course. If a student earns a lower grade than the requirement, the department may require the course to be repeated at West Chester University.
If a student changes his or her major, grades originally approved for transfer will be re-evaluated by the new major department.
No course equivalency transfer credit will be given for WCU courses numbered at the 300 or 400 level, unless the courses are taken at an institution that grants a baccalaureate degree. Departments have the right to accept courses for their majors as XXX 199 or TRN 199 credits. An exception will be made for departments that have already established equivalency with nonbaccalaureate institutions for transferring courses at the 300 level. Those established equivalency agreements will remain in effect.
Transcripts will be evaluated by the Office of the Registrar prior to enrollment. Students will be sent a copy of the report.
All questions and appeals regarding the transfer of credits to West Chester University should be directed to the transfer credit area in the Office of the Registrar. All questions will be reviewed by the University’s official credit evaluators and, if need be, will also be reviewed in consult with the chairperson of the appropriate department. If a course syllabus and/or description is needed to further investigate the student’s appeal, it will be the student’s responsibility to provide this information. The Office of the Registrar will strive to respond to the student with a final determination within a two-week (or less) period of time.
IN ORDER TO RECEIVE FULL CREDIT FOR COURSES TAKEN ELSEWHERE AND FOR PROFICIENCIES DEMONSTRATED ON ADVANCED PLACEMENT OR COLLEGE LEVEL EXAMINATION PROGRAM (CLEP) EXAMINATIONS, THE TRANSFER STUDENT SHOULD CONSULT WITH THE TRANSFER CREDIT AREA IN THE OFFICE OF THE REGISTRAR PRIOR TO ENROLLING IN ANY POTENTIALLY EQUIVALENT COURSE AT WEST CHESTER.
Transfer students should refer to the Academic Passport Policy under "Admissions." Specifics of the Academic Passport Policy implications for West Chester University students can be obtained from the Office of the Registrar.
Courses taken under the Advanced Placement Program offered by the College Entrance Examination Board may be applied toward advanced placement in the University and/or toward credit requirements for graduation. For information about the Advanced Placement Program, contact the College Board directly. For questions about West Chester University's policy, see the "FAQs" section of the registrar's web page.
West Chester University offers three programs that assess learning acquired outside of the traditional classroom. The University evaluates and awards credits on a course basis; therefore, students must demonstrate competence in a particular course, not a general body of knowledge. Transfer credits credentialed through ACE (American Council of Education) for experiential learning will be transferred in as TRN 199. Students may pursue specific course or subject area transfer credit appeal/petition through the existing transfer credit appeals process. Departments will determine equivalency, if any. Students may earn a maximum of 32 credits through any combination of these three programs.
A student is recommended for graduation upon the satisfactory completion of a minimum of 120 semester hours at the 100 level or above and upon fulfillment of all categories of the requirements for his or her degree. A minimum overall cumulative GPA of 2.00 (C) is required for graduation. The minimum GPA for major requirements varies by major. Students should consult with their respective department. Specific programs, in accordance with University procedures, may set other higher standards and may require more than 120 credits for completion of the degree. Degree requirements are detailed under the heading of the subject field. See also "Requirements for the Baccalaureate Degree." A student must file for graduation no later than the end of the junior year. It is imperative that the student meet with his or her academic adviser. Students can obtain a copy of the graduation checklist from the Office of the Registrar. Any student currently matriculated in the University may graduate after completion of 120 credits, PROVIDED
Any senior who does not complete all degree requirements within 30 calendar days of the end of the term in which he or she intends to graduate must pay the diploma fee again before an updated diploma will be issued. Such a student, however, does have the right to request a letter from the University confirming his or her graduation after all requirements have been satisfactorily completed.
The permanent record (transcript) records all degrees, majors, and minors completed, but a diploma only shows one degree. Students who simultaneously complete two undergraduate degrees and who wish to receive two diplomas, each printed with one of their degrees, may do so by paying a second diploma fee.
To qualify for graduation, a student must take at least 30 of his/her last 45 semester hours of credit at West Chester University. Normally, the student will take the last 30 semester hours at West Chester. In addition, a student must take at least 50% of the courses in his/her major or minor discipline (excluding cognate courses) at West Chester University. For active-duty service members, the academic residency requirements will not exceed 25% of the undergraduate degree program.
It is the expectation that a student should anticipate being able to graduate in eight consecutive fall/spring semesters. This expectation would not apply if any of the following conditions exist:
In order to graduate following (or within) the expectation, it is the student's responsibility to consult with the major department for course scheduling guidelines in the major.
The expectation, however, is invalidated when the following conditions exist:
Nothing in this policy prevents the offering of a program that does not meet expectations. Such programs, however, are so identified in the University catalog.
Each department will determine when its courses will be offered.
Students intending to graduate in May or August must apply for graduation online via the myWCU web portal by December 30 of the previous year. Students who need to take summer courses in order to complete degree requirements are considered August graduation applicants. August graduation applicants may participate in the May commencement exercises if they apply by the deadline. Students intending to graduate in December must apply online before classes start for that fall semester.
Students must meet the deadlines in applying for graduation. These deadlines are set so that students have an opportunity to add/change courses in meeting final requirements, as well as have their name printed in the commencement program. Students who miss the deadline to apply online must apply for graduation in person in the Office of the Registrar. Having to apply in person will greatly reduce the opportunity for a student's name to appear in the commencement program.
After applying for graduation online, students will receive an e-mail notification, which is sent to their University e-mail account, regarding their general education clearance. The graduation fee of $82 is applied as soon as a student submits the online application. In addition, students will receive information about ordering their cap and gown.
Students are encouraged to meet with their academic adviser for departmental requirements prior to submitting their application to graduate.
Graduation honors are awarded as follows:
|cum laude||3.250 - 3.499|
|magna cum laude||3.500 - 3.749|
|summa cum laude||3.750 - 4.000|
In order to earn graduation honors, a student must have a minimum of 60 graded West Chester University credits calculating into the GPA. The honors list for commencement is based on the GPA from the next-to-last semester before a student graduates. A transfer student must have 60 credits (earned + currently attempted) reported at West Chester University prior to that time to be recognized. Those who do not attain honors distinctions until the end of their final semester, or those transfer students with honors distinction who do not complete 60 hours until the end of the final semester, will have recognition of their achievement on their final transcripts, where all honors distinctions are recorded. If earned, graduation honors will be recorded on a student’s transcripts.
Requests for official transcripts are made online through the myWCU portal for students who attended after 1985. Students may choose either a paper transcript or an e-transcript (certified PDF) which can be e-mailed. The cost is $7 per transcript for either option. Students who attended prior to 1985 will not be able to order online since their records are archived. These students need to use the transcript request form which can be found on the Registrar’s website. Only paper transcripts are available for students who attended prior to 1985. Students will not be able to request a transcript if they have any outstanding holds on their account. More detailed ordering information is available on the Registrar’s website, www.wcupa.edu/registrar/.
Important note: Current term “In-Progress” courses will not display on a West Chester University transcript. Only courses that have been graded will display.
From time to time, West Chester University makes public certain kinds of information about students, such as the names of those who receive scholarships, who hold offices, or who are members of athletic teams. Various kinds of campus directories are published throughout the year to help members of the University community locate and communicate with each other. The commencement programs publish the names of those who have applied for graduation.
The Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act of 1974 defines the term "directory information" to include the following categories of information: the student's name, address, telephone number, e-mail address, date and place of birth, major field of study, dates of attendance, degrees and awards received, the most recent previous educational agency or institution attended by the student, participation in officially recognized activities and sports, scholarship information, and weight and height of members of athletic teams. The University will limit information that is made public to categories such as these but will not necessarily publish all such information in every listing.
Undergraduate and graduate students who do not wish to have any or all of such directory information published without their prior consent must submit a "Request to Prevent Disclosure of Directory Information" form to the Office of the Registrar within 15 calendar days after the beginning of each fall semester. If a student places this hold on his/her account, it will remain in effect until otherwise notified.
Any student wishing to change his/her name from that currently on record must provide legal documentation supporting the change. This must be the original or a notarized photocopy of a court-generated document, such as a marriage license, court order, divorce decree, etc. A driver's license is not adequate. Requests for name changes received through the mail will be acknowledged by letter.
Students may file a petition that requests exception to academic policies. Petition forms are available in the Office of the Registrar and on the Registrar's web page. Students who may request an exception because of a disability should refer to pages 33-34, "Services for Students with Disabilities."
The Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act of 1974, as amended, is a federal law which states (a) that a written institutional policy must be established and (b) that a statement of adopted procedures covering the privacy rights of students be made available. The law provides that the institution will maintain the confidentiality of student education records.
West Chester University accords all rights under the law to students who are in attendance at the University, and in certain instances to the parents of dependent students, as defined in Section 152 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954. Basically, a dependent student is a student whose parent(s) provides more than half of his/her support. Generally, the University does not provide information to parents because of this act. However, exceptions are made if:
Within the West Chester University community, only those members, individually or collectively, acting on the student's educational interest are allowed access to student education records. These members include, without limitation, personnel in the offices of the Registrar, Bursar, Financial Aid, Admissions, and academic personnel within the limitations of their need to know.
At its discretion the institution may provide directory information in accordance with the provisions of the act to include a student's name, address, telephone number, e-mail address, date and place of birth, major field of study, dates of attendance, degrees and awards received, the most recent previous educational agency or institution attended by the student, participation in officially recognized activities and sports, scholarship information, weight and height of members of athletic teams, and all other information defined as directory information by West Chester University. Students may withhold directory information by submitting a "Request to Prevent Disclosure of Directory Information" form to the Office of the Registrar within 15 calendar days after the beginning of each fall semester. If a student places this hold on his/her account, it will remain in effect until otherwise notified.
The law provides students with the right to inspect and review information contained in their education records, to challenge the contents of their education records, to have a hearing if the outcome of the challenge is unsatisfactory, and to submit explanatory statements for inclusion in their files if the decisions of the hearing panels are unacceptable. The University registrar at West Chester University has been designated by the institution to coordinate the inspection and review procedures for student education records, which include admissions, personal, and academic. Students wishing to review their education records must make written requests to the Office of the Registrar listing the item or items of interest. Only records covered by the act will be made available within 45 days of the request. Students may have copies made of their records with certain exceptions, or a copy of the academic record for which a financial hold exists. These copies will be made at the students' expense. Education records do not include records of instructional, administrative, and educational personnel which are the sole possession of the maker and are not accessible or revealed to any individual except a temporary substitute, records of the law enforcement unit, employment records, or alumni records. Health records, however, may be reviewed by physicians of the students' choosing.
Students may not inspect and review the following as outlined by the act: financial information submitted by their parents, confidential letters and recommendations associated with admissions, employment or job placement, or honors to which they have waived their rights of inspection and review; or education records containing information about more than one student, in which case the institution will permit access only to that part of the record which pertains to the inquiring student. The institution is not required to permit students to inspect and review confidential letters and recommendations placed in their files prior to January 1, 1975, provided those letters were collected under established policies of confidentiality and were used only for the purposes for which they were collected.
Students who believe that their education records contain information that is inaccurate or misleading, or is otherwise in violation of their privacy or other rights, may discuss their problems informally with the Office of the Registrar. If the decisions are in agreement with the students' requests, the appropriate records will be amended. If not, the students will be notified within a reasonable amount of time that the records will not be amended, and they will be informed by the Office of the Registrar of their right to a formal hearing. Student requests for a formal hearing must be made in writing to the associate provost who, within a reasonable period of time after receiving such request, will inform students of the date, place, and time of the hearing. Students may present evidence relevant to the issues raised and may be assisted or represented at the hearings by one or more persons of their choice, including attorneys, at the students' expense. The hearing panels which will adjudicate such challenges will be the individuals designated by the University.
Decisions of the hearing panels will be final, will be based solely on the evidence presented at the hearing, will consist of written statements summarizing the evidence and stating the reasons for the decisions, and will be delivered to all parties concerned. Their education records will be corrected or amended in accordance with the decisions of the hearing panels, if the decisions are in favor of the student. If the decisions are unsatisfactory to the student, the student may place with the education record statements commenting on the information in the records, or statements setting forth any reasons for disagreeing with the decisions of the hearing panels. The statements will be placed in the education records, maintained as part of the student's records, and released whenever the records in question are disclosed.
Students who believe adjudications of their challenges were unfair or not in keeping with the provisions of the act may request, in writing, assistance from the president of the institution to aid them in filing complaints with Family Policy Compliance Office, U.S. Department of Education, 400 Maryland Avenue, SW, Washington, D.C. 20202-4605.
Revisions and clarifications will be published as experience with the law and the institution's policy warrants.
This policy has been adopted in accordance with the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act, 20 U.S.C. 1232(g), and the regulations promulgated thereunder at 34 C.F.R. 99.1 et seq., and that reference should be made to that statute and regulations for additional information.
Please contact the Office of the Registrar with any questions.
West Chester University is committed to equality of opportunity and freedom from discrimination for all students, employees, applicants for admission or employment, and all participants in public University-sponsored activities. In keeping with this commitment, and in accordance with the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 and the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, the University will make every effort to provide equality of opportunity and freedom from discrimination for all members of the University community and visitors to the University, regardless of any disability an individual may have. Accordingly, the University has taken positive steps to make University facilities accessible to individuals with disabilities and has established procedures to provide reasonable accommodations to allow individuals with disabilities to participate in University programs.
The director of the Office of Social Equity has been designated as the ADA coordinator for the University. In this capacity, the director of social equity works with the University ADA Committee to advance University policies and procedures that will provide equal educational and employment opportunities for individuals with disabilities. The Office of Social Equity has an established process to investigate and address any complaints of discrimination on the basis of a disability. Any individual who has a suggestion, question, or complaint regarding ADA issues is encouraged to contact the director of social equity, 13/15 University Avenue, 610-436-2433.
West Chester University has also established the Office of Services for Students with Disabilities, which operates as a centralized service for addressing the needs of students with disabilities and as a resource center for students, faculty, and staff. A student who wants to request an accommodation and/or receive specialized services should contact the director of the OSSD. The policies and procedures used by the OSSD are contained in the West Chester University Handbook on Disabilities, which is available in the OSSD, 223 Lawrence Center, V/TDD 610-436-321, or the following website: www.wcupa.edu/viceProvost/universityCollege/ossd/documents/RevisedADAhandbook.pdf/.
Various housing facilities and services are available for resident students with disabilities. For this and other information about on-campus housing and food service, please contact the Office of Residence Life and Housing, 202 Lawrence Center, 610-436-3307.
The Office of Human Resource Services has been designated as the contact for employees and applicants seeking to request an accommodation. The Office of Human Resource Services is located at 201 Carter Drive, 610-436-2800.
West Chester University is involved in the ongoing process of renovating campus buildings to ensure accessibility for all individuals. Many of our buildings are currently accessible, but some are awaiting renovation. To find out whether a particular location is accessible or how to access a location, please contact the space manager at 610-436-3348. To make arrangements for changes to a particular facility to ensure accessibility, please contact the manager of campus projects at 610-436-3599.