2014 – 2015
Office of Admissions
Emil H. Messikomer Hall
100 W. Rosedale Avenue
West Chester, PA 19383
Revised August 2014
206 Sturzebecker Health Sciences Center
Frank F. Fry, Jr., Chairperson
Frances E. Cleland, Assistant Chairperson, Health and Physical Education - Teacher Certification
Sheri Melton, Assistant Chairperson - Exercise Science; Graduate Coordinator, M.S. Exercise and Sport Physiology
PROFESSORS: Atkinson, Cleland, Fry, Helion, Lepore, Melton, Ottley, Volkwein
ASSOCIATE PROFESSORS: Ellis, Smith, Stearne, Stevens
ASSISTANT PROFESSORS: Beattie, Cramer, Cummiskey, Reed, Whidden
INSTRUCTORS: Kubachka, M. Williams
The Department of Kinesiology offers two programs leading to the bachelor of science degree.
120 semester hours
120 semester hours
The concentration is designed to prepare students for entrance into a school of chiropractic and to earn a doctor of chiropractic (D.C.) degree. To be accepted into a school of chiropractic, students must meet specific educational standards and requirements. This concentration is a rigorous, science-based curriculum intended to meet these specific requirements. The pre-chiropractic concentration requires students to complete 120 semester hours, as outlined below.
This 120-semester hour concentration is designed to prepare students for entrance into a professional graduate-level school of occupational therapy. Occupational therapists and occupational therapy assistants work with a variety of individuals who have difficulty accessing or performing meaningful occupations. Most commonly, these therapists and assistants work with people with disabilities to maximize their skills and abilities. Services typically include 1) customized intervention programs to improve one’s ability to perform daily activities; 2) comprehensive home and job site evaluations with adaptation recommendations; 3) performance skills assessments and treatments; 4) adaptive equipment recommendations and usage training; and 5) guidance to family members and caregivers.
The 120-semester-hour pre-physical therapy concentration in exercise science is designed to prepare students for entrance into a school of physical therapy. Physical therapy programs accept a limited number of students and are highly competitive. Students are encouraged to maintain a GPA of 3.0 or better in this concentration.
Students successfully completing the minor in coaching earn transcript recognition attesting to school administrators that recipients have attained basic preparation for coaching. Skill acquisition, management techniques, and behavioral competencies are included in the program. The program is open to students from any major. Students should apply through the minor program adviser, Dr. John Helion. Course work is divided into six groupings in order to meet National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE) guidelines.
Choose one: EXS 262; KIN 361, 453, 585
Choose one: EXS 364, 380
Choose one: EXS 482; SMD 454
The exercise science minor is designed to impart fundamental knowledge, skills, and abilities in the theories and practice of exercise science. The minor will also provide learning experiences that lead to a basic understanding of exercise techniques, exercise testing, and exercise prescription. Students who wish to minor in exercise science must complete and submit a minor selection application to the Office of the Registrar. To enroll in this minor, students also must have permission from their major department and from the Department of Kinesiology.
Students should make course selections in consultation with the minor program adviser. A minimum grade of C- is required in each of the minor courses taken before clearance for graduation with a minor will be granted.
A minor in exercise science requires students to complete six core courses in the exercise science (EXS) curriculum - four required courses and two electives, as noted below - for a total of 21-23 semester hours. Prerequisites related to individual courses apply.
(15 semester hours)
EXS 251, 262, 370, and 380; EXL 380
Electives (6-7 semester hours)
Two elective courses to be chosen from the following:
EXS 180, 375, 482, 486, and 489
The minor in physical education for individuals with disabilities is designed to enable students to plan, implement, and advocate for developmentally appropriate physical activities for people with a variety of physical and cognitive disabilities in schools, fitness centers, recreation centers, and residential facilities. Practical application is stressed in this minor; students will participate in approximately 200 hours of hands-on work. The minor prepares those in HPE-teacher certification to be eligible for the APENS (Adapted Physical Education National Standards) exam but is open to any WCU students who meet the prerequisites. Other certifications are offered within various courses.
KIN 205, 253, 254, 360, 362, 400. PREREQ: HEA 206 or KIN 186
The department is housed on West Chester University's South Campus in the Russell L. Sturzebecker Health Sciences Center. The SHSC features the following indoor facilities: five full-size, multipurpose gymnasiums; one fully equipped gymnastics gym; dance studio; strength training facility; human performance laboratory; 17 classrooms; aquatics center featuring two pools and a 14.5-foot diving well. Outdoor facilities include multipurpose playing fields, tennis courts, softball fields/baseball fields, quarter-mile track, three outdoor adventure education facilities, and a climbing wall.
These courses are for kinesiology majors only.
The number in parentheses indicates the semester hours of credit.
101 Group Exercise Leadership (2) The major goals of this course are to provide students with professional instruction on how to teach a variety of group exercise classes by applied learning techniques; to lead exercise classes for all levels of fitness and for a wide variety of participants, including children, the elderly, and other special populations; and to modify moves to accommodate them. This course is designed to prepare students to pass a nationally accredited certification exam for group exercise leadership.
102 Fundamentals of Resistance Training Techniques (2) Resistance training, also called weight training or strength training, is structured exercise in which muscles of the body are forced to contract under tension using weights, body weight, or other devices to stimulate growth, strength, power, and endurance. This course provides the beginner student with hands-on experience using these various methods along with instruction on proper exercise technique and safety precautions.
180 Lifetime Fitness Concepts (3) Designed to teach students key elements involved in achieving a healthy lifestyle. Taught from a holistic view that total or optimal health is comprised of a healthy body, mind, and spirit which is accomplished through a combination of techniques.
222 Introduction to Medical Terminology and Drug Classifications (2) This course offers an introduction to common clinical abbreviations and medical terms through an analysis of their construction including prefix, suffix, root, connecting, and combining forms. The student acquires an understanding of medical meanings applicable to the structure, function, and diseases of the human body. Students will also learn how drugs are classified and for what major conditions they are used and learn how to use the Physicians’ Desk Reference.
223 Kinetic Anatomy (2) This course lays the foundation for students to learn how anatomy affects human body movement. The course will build upon, reinforce, and challenge students’ knowledge of structural anatomy by acquiring a mastery of basic concepts, beginning with whole body orientation by region, and then working additively and systematically from skeletal anatomy identifications and joint structure/alignment analysis through muscular and neurovascular investigation to provide a comprehensive study of clinically applied structural anatomy.
241 Body Systems and Kinesiology (3) Introduces basic anatomical and physiological concepts critical to understanding human movement, exercise, physical education, and how the human body functions. Students will be required to apply these anatomical and physiological principles to physical education, exercise, and sport.
251 Measurement and Evaluation (4) Covers the fundamentals of measurement and evaluation emphasizing the link between valid assessments and decision making in exercise science, health, and physical education. Application in each learning domain is covered, with an emphasis on health-related physical fitness assessment. PREREQ: MAT 121 and current CPR certification.
262 Biomechanics (3) Students will develop a fundamental understanding of selected mechanical and anatomical laws of motion, actions caused by forces, and their application to the study of mechanical structure and analysis of motion. Students will be able to use and apply these principles to various forms of movement. Exercise science majors must concurrently enroll in the lab, EXL 262 (1). PREREQ: BIO 259, PHY 100 or 130.
EXL 262 Biomechanics Lab (1) Students will develop a fundamental understanding of basic principles of biomechanics related to selected mechanical and anatomical laws of motion through hands-on laboratory experiences and data collection. Analysis of force, motion, muscle activation, balance and stability, and structural alignment will be applied to functional exercise and sport-related activities. Exercise science majors must be concurrently enrolled in the lecture, EXS 262 (3).
361 Kinesiology (3) Basic fundamentals of movement, articulation, and muscular actions; analysis of the related principles of mechanics. PREREQ: EXS 241.
364 Introduction to Exercise Physiology (3) Builds on the physiological concepts introduced in EXS 241. Students will be required to apply these physiological principles to physical education, exercise, and sport. PREREQ: EXS 241.
370 Motor Learning (3) An introduction to human lifespan development within the motor domain. The content specifically addresses the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) competency and institutional requirements. PREREQ: BIO 259.
375 Exercise Psychology (3) An introduction to psychological aspects of exercise designed to complement the anatomical and physiological substance of the exercise science specialist curriculum. Content specifically addresses ACSM organizational evaluation and knowledge, skills, and abilities that are set out in the competency requirements of the Guidelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription. PREREQ: PSY 100.
380 Exercise Physiology (3) This course investigates the physiological principles that explain how the human body responds and adapts to physical activity, exercise, and work. PREREQ: BIO 269; EXS 180 and 251.
EXL 380 Exercise Physiology Lab (1) This laboratory course will enable the student to learn from both hands-on and computer-simulated experiences. In both cases, reinforcing and illuminating concepts and physiological principles introduced in the EXS 380 lecture class. PREREQ: Concurrently with BIO 269 or prior enrollment in EXS 380.
381 Fitness Assessment and Exercise Prescription (4) Designed to prepare students to assess health-related physical fitness using laboratory and field tests. Test results used to prepare individualized exercise prescriptions to improve cardiovascular endurance, muscular fitness, body composition, and flexibility. Skill application and practice required. ACSM guidelines emphasized. PREREQ: EXS 251, 375, 380; EXL 380; and current CPR certification.
482 Exercise Techniques and Physical Conditioning (4) Analysis of various exercise techniques, devices, and systems emphasizing their use and safety. Clinical experience in strength and range of motion (ROM) testing and prescription. PREREQ: EXS 251, 262, 380; EXL 380.
484 Organization and Management of Adult Fitness Programs Clinic/Seminar (3) Designed to provide students with practical experience in organizing and managing physical fitness programs for adults. PREREQ: EXS 380, EXL 380, and permission of instructor.
486 Exercise Prescription for Special Populations (3) Designed to provide students with a framework in which to develop safe exercise programs for individuals with disabilities, chronic diseases, or multiple conditions. PREREQ: EXS 381.
487 Physical Activity and the Environment (3) This is a survey course investigating the multidisciplinary nature of environmental physiology. It will explore the impact of different environments on the physiology of humans while at work and play. This course will examine the thermal environments (hot, cold, and humidity), barophysiology (altitude and depth), microgravity and space, air pollution, and chronobiological rhythms. Laboratory experiences, both computer simulation and “hands-on,” will be included in this course. PREREQ: An undergraduate course in anatomy and physiology; and EXS 380 or BIO 468 or BIO 469.
489 Clinical Exercise Testing and Prescription (4) Prepares students to administer exercise tests in the clinical arena and to prepare for ACSM certification exams. Covers basic electrocardiography and interpretation, risk factor threshold assessment, CV exercise testing procedures and interpretation, and CV exercise prescription - all relevant to the clinical adult population. Includes lectures, class discussions, project assignments, and group/individual lab experiences. PREREQ: EXS 381.
490 Internship I (3) A capstone experience meant to tie together previous course work into a “hands-on” application in a job setting. A minimum of 250 hours of actual work site experience may be in any vocational avenue available including cardiac rehabilitation, strength and conditioning coaching, commercial fitness, corporate fitness, and personal training. PREREQ: EXS 381, 482, 484, 489, and permission of department.
491 Internship II (3-6) A supplemental experience to EXS 490 which will enable students to explore other internship or work settings including cardiac rehabilitation, strength and conditioning coaching, commercial fitness, corporate fitness, and personal training. The experience can be at the same site as EXS 490. Hours required range between 125 (for three credits) to 250 hours (for six credits). PREREQ: Permission of department.
101 Introduction to Adventure-Based Education (3) A course designed for the student to understand the adventure approach to experiential education in various environments. The students will have the opportunity to experience an adventure curriculum including initiatives, problem-solving activities, and low/high ropes course elements.
102 Contemporary Activities (2) Provides students with insight through practical experiences in a variety of "alternative" physical education activities to gain an expanded awareness of the K-12 physical education curriculum.
103 Historical and Philosophical Foundations of Physical Education, Fitness, and Sport (3) This course provides prospective health and physical education educators the opportunity to examine and understand the complexities of the kinesiology field. The student will gain a historical perspective of how the field developed and insight on the underlying principles and philosophies as it exists today. Students also will be introduced to present-day teaching strategies and concerns in health and physical education. Authentic learning opportunities will assist students in identifying the subdisciplines of kinesiology and how they form the comprehensive field.
104 Fitness and Wellness (2) Prepares preservice teachers to address health- and skill-related components of fitness as well as the dimensions of wellness. Preservice teachers will assess and monitor their personal fitness development, as well as participate in, design, implement, and assess a variety of activities that focus on one or more components of fitness and wellness.
110 American Sign Language I (3) This is the first in a sequence of four American Sign Language courses. Students in this course will develop a fundamental vocabulary and understanding of American Sign Language. Students will recognize, comprehend, apply, and demonstrate culturally appropriate linguistic behaviors (vocabulary selection, grammar usage, turn-taking skills, feedback signals, and eye-gaze, among others) in order to communicate with other students and signers. In addition, information will be provided about deaf culture, general impact, barriers, and opportunities related to hearing loss. Crosslisted with SPP 110.
111 American Sign Language II (3) This is the second of four courses in the ASL foreign language option. In this course students will increase communication skills and develop conversational skills in ASL. Students also will continue to expand their knowledge of deaf culture by gaining a better understanding of cultural values and behavioral roles of the U.S. deaf community. This course includes receptive and expressive activities, sign vocabulary, grammatical structure, receptive and expressive finger spelling, and facial expressions and body language. PREREQ: KIN/SPP 110. Crosslisted with SPP 111.
140 Aquatic Fundamentals and Emergency Water Safety (2) Review of basic aquatic skills with advanced stroke techniques, safety, and survival techniques.
186 Motor Learning and Development (3) An introduction to human motor development and learning. Principles and concepts associated with those areas will be examined as they relate to human motor performance and the development of motor skills across the lifespan. Motor development topics including growth, maturation, fitness development, self-concept development, gender, and age will be explored from a dynamical systems theoretical framework. Motor-learning topics include information processing, schema theory, transfer of learning, reaction time, and levels of movement learning. The interrelationships among the topics will be discussed.
201 Educational Dance and Gymnastics (2) Provides students with the appropriate methods, materials, and skills needed for demonstrating, teaching, and analyzing K–12 dance and educational gymnastics in grades K-5. Will include skill assessment, peer teaching, and lesson plan development. PREREQ: KIN 104.
203 Net/Wall Games (2) Provides future physical educators with the knowledge and skills necessary to instruct, demonstrate, and assess lifetime fitness activities that fall within the net/wall games classification system. Students will be introduced to teaching methodologies, skill production and progressions, class management techniques, and assessment strategies. Addresses the net/wall games of tennis, badminton, pickleball, and volleyball. PREREQ: KIN 104.
205 Curriculum and Instruction: Inclusion in Health and Physical Education (3) Prepares physical education majors to have the skills, knowledge, and attitudes necessary in teaching children with disabilities: providing them with appropriate physical activities, helping them with lifetime fitness pursuits in community and vocational settings, advocating for appropriate physical activities in fitness centers and the community at large, and modifying the environment to make it less restrictive. PREREQ: KIN 186; field clearances required (child abuse, criminal record check, TB, FBI); or permission of instructor. COREQ: KIN 206.
206 Adapted PE and Health for Students with Disabilites (3) Through classroom and hands-on teaching experiences, this course will provide health and physical education teacher certification majors with the skills, knowledge, and attitudes to teach students with disabilities in inclusive and segregated health and physical education classes and to meet the NASPE beginning teacher standards and the Pennsylvania Chapter 49.13 special education standards. PREREQ: KIN 186 and field clearances required (child abuse, criminal record check, TB, FBI). COREQ: KIN 205.
210 Intermediate American Sign Language I (3) This course is the third in a sequence of four ASL courses. In this class, students will build on what was learned in KIN/SPP 110 and 111, continuing to emphasize the development of proper ASL grammar, syntax, and vocabulary with emphasis on conversation and narration/storytelling. Vocabulary-building and mastery of grammar will be through rigorous receptive and expressive language activities. Topics discussed in ASL include the location and description of items in rooms and buildings, complaints, making suggestions, and making requests. Exposure to and knowledge of deaf culture is an integral part of the course. PREREQ: KIN/SPP 111.
211 Intermediate American Sign Language II (3) This is the final of a four-course sequence in ASL. This course provides students with opportunities to expand their sign production and comprehension skills in ASL. Students continue to expand their awareness of ASL conventions, grammar, and vocabulary, including an extensive review of topical signs and idioms. Students develop a greater competency in their receptive understanding of connected ASL discourse and in their expression of extended ideas, concepts, and stories in ASL. Their expressive competency in discussion of ideas includes their understanding of deaf culture. Students continue the growth of their technical awareness of deaf culture and ASL linguistics. PREREQ: KIN/SPP 210.
246 Sport, Culture, and Society (3) Current theories and research in the area of sport and society will be introduced. Focus of the course is interdisciplinary, incorporating sociological, psychological, historical, anthropological, philosophical, and economic perspectives. Topics include moral, ethical, racial, and gender issues in sport in relation to the North American culture.
Diverse communities course
Approved interdisciplinary course
253 Adapted Aquatics, Lifetime Sport, and Fitness (3) Course designed to increase knowledge and skills in providing appropriate and safe adapted aquatics, sports, and fitness activities to individuals with disabilities. Outside hours required.
254 Disability Studies: An Interdisciplinary Introduction (3) A study of the psychological and social implications of physical disabilities. PREREQ: Any basic course about people with disabilities. Culture cluster.
275 Lifeguarding (2) Theory and techniques relative to preventive lifeguarding, emergencies in and around water, water rescues, search and recovery operations, types and uses of equipment, records and reports, health and sanitation, and supervision of waterfront areas. Possiblity of American Red Cross certification.
300 Curriculum and Instruction: Elementary (3) Students in this course will examine the design, implementation, and assessment of an elementary physical education program. PREREQ: KIN 201, 205; field clearances.
302 Curriculum and Instruction: Middle and Secondary Physical Education (3) This third course in pedagogy will relate all topics to the middle and secondary physical education setting. Intended to give students a comprehensive overview of topics that relate to the planning, execution, and reflection of lessons presented in the physical education setting. PREREQ: KIN 205, 206; FATE; and field clearances.
331 Water Safety Instruction (2) This course is designed to prepare individuals to become swim instructors. Testing during the first week includes a 500-yard swim, basic rescue procedures, and a written community water safety test. Opportunity exists to become an American Red Cross water safety instructor.
347 Assessment and Technology in Health and Physical Education (3) An introductory course that provides a hands-on look at uses of computer technology in teaching and assessment in health and physical education. The goal is for preservice teachers to use a variety of computer-based technology and software applications (e.g., grading software) for both professional and instructional use. Current assessment strategies (e.g., purpose, design, implementation of) will also be studied.
357 Deaf Culture Perspectives (3) This course will cover a variety of issues related to the deaf community. It will acquaint students with the history, traditions, and values within the culture of deaf people. The history of deaf people will focus on struggles, cultural versus pathological views, legislature, and accomplishments. Traditions include the use of humor, success stories, behaviors, and empowerment. Values include the importance of deaf culture’s perspectives on education of deaf children, communication issues, technology, and preservation of American Sign Language. PREREQ: SPP 110, 111.Culture cluster course
360 Pathology for Adapted Physical Education Activities Specialists (3) Study of common disabling conditions with regard to anatomical and physiological changes.
362 Assessment and Programming: Adapted Physical Activities (3) For students who want to specialize in adapted physical education. To improve students' understanding of evaluation and programming in the psychomotor domain for students with disabilities. Principles of therapeutic exercise, and guidelines for exercise programs for those disabilities commonly seen in schools and fitness centers.
KIL 363 Adapted Physical Activity Practicum (1) Practicum experience working in an adapted physical activity setting. Includes writing and implementing lessons and individual goals. PREREQ: KIN 205, 206, or 252.
378 Field Experience (3) Practical experience for the student who must solicit approval of the appropriate agency, develop a proposal for the on-site experience, and secure agreement from the faculty adviser.
This course may be taken again for credit.
380 Women and Sport (3) An examination of women's participation in sport from historical, cultural, psychological, physical, and legal perspectives; emphasis placed on women in sport in American society today.
400 Professional Seminar in Adapted Physical Activity (3) Issues and current events in the professional development of adapted physical activity specialists.
402 Physical Education Practicum (3) This course applies pedagogical content knowledge by planning, implementing, assessing, and reflecting upon teaching experiences in a physical education setting. PREREQ: KIN 300, 302; field clearances; formal admission to teacher education required.
449 Learning on the Move (3) A combination of preschool and primary-grade movement education activities are included to maximize children's overall development. PREREQ: Formal admission to teacher education.
452 Principles of Coaching (3) This course explores responsibilities of those engaged in the profession of athletic coaching. Yearly responsibilities, philosophy and ethical practices, legal considerations, leadership, and skill development will be discussed.
453 Motor Learning (3) A study of the theories of learning in relation to the acquisition of motor skills.
458 Physical Disabilities of Childhood (2) Common orthopedic and neurological disabilities of childhood, especially chronic deviations. Emphasis is on understanding the medical aspects and problems of rehabilitation.
465 Mechanical Analysis of Motor Skills (3) A problem-solving approach to skill analysis using qualitative and quantitative video and cinematographic analysis as well as elementary force-time and accelerometry techniques. Useful for teachers, trainers, coaches, and exercise professionals.
470 Leadership in Recreational Outdoor Pursuits (3) This course is designed to provide instruction that would help persons desiring a career in recreational outdoor pursuits education, or develop an outdoor education or physical education program using activities, processes, and educational methodology in a safe and meaningful manner.
471 Adventure Education Essentials (3) Areas of curriculum, activities, briefing, front loading, debriefing, equipment, and facilities will be presented and discussed to provide students with a general background for Adventure Education.
473 Independent Study and Special Projects (1-3) Provide an opportunity for selected students to pursue areas of special interest and talent or to take advantage of special conferences or seminars. PREREQ: Permission of department chairperson.
475 Mental Training in Sport (3) Techniques of mental training for sport and physical activity, including relaxation training, concentration skills, breathing regulation, positive imagery, autogenic training, and meditation.
489 Student Teaching (6) Health and physical education teaching situations in elementary, middle, or secondary schools under qualified cooperating teachers and University supervisors. PREREQ: HEA 304, 306, and 440; KIN 402; preprofessional experience documentation; field clearances; formal admission to teacher education.; completion of all major course work with a required minimum grade of C; and Praxis II scores.
490 Student Teaching (6) Observation and participation in health and physical education teaching situations in elementary, middle, or secondary schools under qualified cooperating teachers and college supervisors. PREREQ: HEA 304, 306, 440; KIN 402; completion of all major course work with a required minimum grade of C; preprofessional experience documentation; field clearances; formal admission to teacher education; and Praxis II test scores.
498 Physical Education Workshop (1-3)
This course may be taken again for credit.
The following courses incorporate the components of fitness with specific activities designed to provide students with the knowledge and participatory skills necessary to achieve and enjoy keeping fit and well for life. The number in parentheses indicates the number of semester hours of credit.
100 Basic Swimming (2)
101 Swimming as a Lifetime Fitness Activity (2)
115 Physical Conditioning (2)
This course may be taken again for credit.
116 Personal Defense (2)
117 Karate (2)
120 Fitness Through Badminton (2)
123 Fitness Through Golf (2)
128 Fitness Through Tennis (2)
129 Fitness Through Basketball (2)
136 Fitness for Life (2)
137 Strength Training (2)
140 Aerobic Dance Fitness (2)
142 Yoga I (3)
143 Yoga II (3)
144 T'ai Chi Ch'uan (3) This course is the study of a martial art that combines movement with chi. T'ai chi ch'uan uses the principles of yin-yang and the five element theories and is compatible with Chinese medicine, acupuncture, and Chinese herb treatment. The study of movement, skeletal structure, and t'ai chi as a meditative art will be included in the course.
146 Pilates (3) This course is designed to provide each student with the skill and knowledge to perform the six basic principles that are the core of the Pilates method – centering, concentration, control, precision, breathing, and flowing movement. Exercises and activities are developed to assist students in strengthening musculature, in spinal alignment, and in gaining an awareness of effective breathing.
Course may be repeated for credit.
244 T'ai Chi Ch'uan II (3) This course is designed to provide students with an advanced knowledge and skill set required to practice the art of t'ai chi ch'uan and push hands.
236 Developing Personal Fitness Programs (1) This course, designed for nontraditional students and students with disabilities, provides an understanding of the scientific basis of physical fitness. The course is intended to help each student develop a personal fitness profile and subsequent program of physical activity that will result in healthful living. The course will make use of practical experience and actual participation in fitness activities. Individual programs will be emphasized.
242 Yoga III (3) This course is the third in the yoga sequence and will provide further development of yoga skills. Individuals interested in teaching yoga will explore teaching methodology and will address the individual requirements established by the Yoga Alliance. PREREQ: PEA 142 and 143 or instructor permission.