Marshall J Becker

Anthropology & Sociology

West Chester University

Marshall J. Becker, Ph.D.

Retired Professor Marshall Becker 

Dr. Becker has produced the following scholarly publications:

   2003a  Plaza Plans at Tikal: A Research Strategy for Inferring Social Organization

          and Processes of Culture Change at Lowland Maya Site. Pages 253-280 in,

          Tikal: Dynasties, Foreigners, & Affairs of State: Advancing Maya

          Archaeology, edited by Jeremy A. Sabloff. Santa Fe: School of American

          Research Press.


   2003b  A Classic Period Barrio Producing Fine Polychrome Ceramics at Tikal,

          Guatemala: Notes on ancient Maya firing technology. Ancient Mesoamerica 14:



   2003c  A Bregmatic Ossicle Resembling a Trepanation from an Eleventh-Century

          Skeleton Excavated from a Cemetery Area now Within the Prague Castle, Czech

          Republic. Pages 155-162 in, Trepanation: History, Discovery, Theory, edited

          by Robert Arnott, Stanley Finger and C. U. M. Smith. Lisse (etc.): Swets &



   2003d  Etruscan Gold Dental Appliances: Evidence for Early “Parting” of Gold in

          Italy through the Study of Ancient Pontics. Pages 11-27 in, Molecular and

          Structural Archaeology: Cosmetic and Therapeutic Chemicals, edited by

          Georges Tsoucaris and Janusz Lipkowski. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic (NATO

          Science Series, 117).


   2003e  Calumet Smoke, Wampum Beads and Bird Quills: The Meanings and Materials

          Used by Natives in Economic Interactions with Europeans in Colonial

          America. Bulletin of the Archaeological Society of New Jersey 58: 19-41.


   2003f  [Review essay] Beyond Kinship: Social and Material Reproduction in House

          Societies, edited by Rosemary A. Joyce and Susan D. Gillespie (2000);

          Material Culture, by Henrie Glassie 1999); and, Vernacular Architecture, by

          Henry Glassie (2000). Journal of American Folklore 116 (No. 460): 240-244.


   2003   Marshall Joseph Becker and John Beierly. Cultural summary, Delaware. New

          Haven, CT: eHRAF, North America. Human Relations Area Files.


   2004a  Maya Heterarchy as Inferred from Classic-Period Plaza Plans. Ancient

          Mesoamerica 15: 127-138.


   2004b  Native Americans from Toms River: Teedyuscung and his Lenopi kin.

          Newsletter of the Archaeological Society of New Jersey 204 (Jan.): 1-4.


   2004c  A Penobscot Wampum Belt in the Vatican Museums: A Possible Nineteenth

          Century Example of Native American Diplomacy. Bollettino - Monumenti,

          Musei e Gallerie Pontificie XXIV: 225-270.


   2004d  The Archaeology of Ethnicity: Can Historical Archaeology Extract the

          Ciconicin from the Melting Pot of Delaware? SAA Archaeological Record (The

          Archaeology of Ethnicity II) Volume 4 (5): 26-28.


   2004e  Etruscan skeletons of the Hellenistic period from the Casacce necropolis at

          Blera (Viterbo, Italy) excavated in 1982.Appendice II: Pages 175-189 in,

          [(LAZIO) II.] - “Blera (Viterbo). Località Casacce. - Necropoli rupestre di

          età ellenistica,” by Gabriella Barbieri and Autori varie. Notizie degli

          Scavi di Antichità (Serie IX) XIII-XIV (2002-2003): 89-190.


   2004f  [Nine entries in] Encyclopedia of New Jersey, edited by Maxine N. Lurie

          and Marc Mappen. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press. {see under

          Encyclopedia Entries for details).


   2004   M. J. Becker and Jonathan Lainey. Wampum Belts With Initials and/or Dates.

          American Indian Culture and Research Journal 28 (2): 25-45.


   2005a  Matchcoats: Cultural Conservatism and Change. Ethnohistory 52 (4): 727-



   2005b  Penobscot Wampum Belt Use during the 1722-1727 Conflict in Maine. Pages 23-

          51 in, Papers of the Thirty-Sixth Algonquian Conference, edited by H. C.

          Wolfart. Winnipeg: University of Manitoba.


   2005c  Late Woodland Period in Delaware: Observations on a Career Related to

          Archaeology; or, Who Speaks for the Indians, and Why? North American

          Archaeologist 26 (1): 37-50.


   2005d  An Update on Colonial Witch Bottles. Pennsylvania Archaeologist 75 (2): 12-



   2005e  Wampum used by Lenape and Swedes in Colonial America: A tale of sex and

          violence involving ‘decorative’ belts of wampum. Newsletter of the

          Archaeological Society of New Jersey 208 (March): 1-4.


   2005f  Etruscan Women at Tarquinia: Skeletal Evidence for Tomb Use. Analecta

          Romana Instituti Danici 31: 21-36.


   2005g  The Cazzanello Perinatal Cemetery: Continuities of Etruscan Mortuary

          Practices into the Late Antique Period and Beyond. Studi Etruschi LXX

          (2004): 255 - 267.


   2005h  Cremations in five hut urns in the Museo Gregoriano Etrusco: implications

          for Iron Age cultural diversity. Pages 485-495 in, Materiale protostorico:

          Etruria et Latium Vetus, by Alessandro Mandolesi. Cataloghi / Museo

          gregoriano etrusco, 9. Roma: “L’ERMA” di Bretschneider.


   2005i  The Human Skeletal Remains. Appendix A (pages 370-383) in, Knossos Medical

          Faculty Site [KMF '78]: Late e Antique Graves and Other Remains, by Rebecca

          Sweetman. The Annual of the British School at Athens 100: 331-386.


   2005j  Plaza Plan 4 en Tikal, Guatemala: The “Central Altar Group Plan” Como

          Influido por Contactos con México. Pages 77-86 in, Los Investigadores de la

          Cultura Maya 13 (Tomo I), edited by Ricardo Encalada A.   Campeche:

          Universidad Autónoma de Campeche, Campeche.


   2005  (Pages 410-411) Rita Vargiu and Marshall Joseph Becker: “Appendice: Studio

          Antropologiche dei Resti Scheletrici Umani. Pages 409-411 in, “Sulle ‘Tombe

          a Buca’ di Tarquinia,” by Maria Cataldi. Pages 395-411 in, Dinamiche di

          Sviluppo delle Città nell’Etruria Medidionale: Veio, Caere, Tarquinia,

          Vulci (Atti del XXIII Convegno di Studi Etruschi ed Italici, Oct. 2001,

          Roma, Veio, etc.). Pisa e Roma: Istituti Editoriali e Poligrafici



   2006a  Anadromous Fish and the Lenape. Pennsylvania Archaeologist 76 (2): 28-40.


   2006b  Foragers in Southern New England: Correlating Social Systems, Maize

          Production and Wampum Use. Bulletin of the Archaeological Society of

          Connecticut 68: 75-107.


   2006c  The Vatican 1831 Wampum Belt: Cultural Origins of An Important American

          Indian Artifact and its Meaning as the Last "Ecclesiastical Convert" Belt.

            Bulletin of the Archaeological Society of New Jersey 61: 79-134.


   2006d  The Archaeology of Infancy and Childhood: Integrating and Expanding Research

          into the Past. [Review essay : J. D. Uzzi, Children in the Visual Arts of

          Imperial Rome, 2005; J. Neils and J. H. Oakley, Coming of Age in Ancient

          Greece: Images of Childhood from the Classical Past, 2003; J. E. Baxter, The

          Archaeology of Childhood: Children, Gender, and Material Culture, 2005; B.

          J. Baker, T. L. Dupras, and M. W. Tocheri, The Osteology of Infants and

          Children,2005]. American Journal of Archaeology 110: 655-658.


   2006e  Etruscan Women at Tarquinia: Skeletal Evidence for Tomb Use [Abstracted

          from Becker 2005f, Analecta Romana]. Pages 292-294 in, Common Ground:

          Archaeology, Art, Science, and Humanities. Proceedings of the XVIth

          International Congress of Classical Archaeology. Boston, August 23-26,

          2003. Edited by Carol C. Mattusch, A. A. Donohue and Amy Brauer.

          Oxford: Oxbow Books.


   2006f  The Prinzhof (36DE3), A Swedish Colonial Site that was the First European

          Center of Government in Present Pennsylvania. Bulletin of the Archaeological

          Society of Delaware 43 New series (Fall): 1-34 [Issued 2011].


   2006g  A Petroglyph in Philadelphia’s Pennypack Park. Newsletter of the

          Archaeological Society of New Jersey 213 (May): 1, 3.


   2007a  Childhood among the Etruscans: Mortuary Programs at Tarquinia as Indicators

          of the Transition to Adult Status. Pages 281-292 in, Constructions of

          Childhood in Ancient Greece and Italy, edited by Ada Cohen and Jeremy B.

          Rutter. Hesperia, Supplement 41


   2007b  Wampum Held by the Oneida Indian Nation, Inc. of New York: Research Relating

          to Wampum Cuffs and Belts. The Bulletin. Journal of the New York State

          Archaeological Association 123: 1-18.


   2007c  Unique Huron Ornamental Bands: Wampum Cuffs. Material Culture Review 66:



   2007d  Native Lives in New Jersey. Bulletin of the Archaeological Society of New  

          Jersey 62: 93-95.


   2007e  Appendix II: The Site Human Skeletons (Site 10). The Via Gabina Villas –

          Sites 10, 11 and 13. Updated February 2007 by W.

          Widrig. Updated and reissued from Becker 1986 Notizie degli scavi 1983, pp.

          176-182. Printed vol. avail. on demand, May 2010 as “Append. II: The Human

          Skeletons From Site 10, in The Via Gabina Villa: Sites 10, 11, and 13.


   2007f  II.4.2  The anthropological analysis of the human skeletal remains: Tombs

          6008, 6093 and 6092. Suspected Tomb. Pages 50-52 of “The Excavations” by

          Helle Horsnaes.  In, Hellenistic and Roman Pontecagnano: The Danish

          Excavations in Proprietà Avallone 1986-1990, edited by Birgit Tang. Centre

          Jean Bérard: Naples.


   2008a  Small Wampum Bands Used by Native Americans in the Northeast: Functions and

          Recycling. Material Culture 40 (1): 1-17.


   2008b  Cremation and Comminution at Etruscan Tarquinia in the 5TH-4TH Century BCE:

          Insights into Cultural Transformations from Tomb 6322.  Pages 229-248

          (Chapter 14) in, Votives, Places and Rituals in Etruscan Religion: Studies

          in Honor of Jean MacIntosh Turfa, edited by Margarita Gleba and Hilary

          Becker. Leiden: Brill.


   2008c  “POWER POINT”: Multiple Perspectives on Native American Grave Recovery,

          Including Those Relating to American Legal Systems.  Journal of Middle

          Atlantic Archaeology 24: 27-38.


   2008d  Perinatal Cemeteries in Etruria: The Continuing Search for Context and 

          Meaning. Paleopathology Newsletter, No. 142: 17-19.


   2008e  Lenopi, Or, What’s in a Name? Interpreting the Evidence for Cultural

          Boundaries in the Lower Delaware Valley. Bulletin of the Archaeological

          Society of New Jersey 63: 11 – 32.


   2008f  Appropriate Terms: Linking Ceramic Types and Cultural Affiliations.

          Bulletin of the Archaeological Society of New Jersey 64: 41 – 47.


   2008g  Grillz. Anthropology News 49 (5): 3.


   2008h  Some Notes on Native Indian Grave Recovery and Multiple Related Issues. The

          SRAC Journal (Susquehanna River Archaeological Center of Native Indian

          Studies) 4 (1): 11-14.


   2009a  Tikal: Evidence for Ethnic Diversity in a Prehispanic Lowland Maya State

          Capital. Pages 89-104 in, Domestic Life in Prehispanic Capitals: A Study of

          Specialization, Hierarchy, and Ethnicity, edited by Linda R. Manzanilla and

          Claude Chapdelaine. Memoir 46. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.


   2009b  Birdstones: A Continuing Enigma in North American Archaeology. Pennsylvania 

          Archaeologist 79 (2): 42-58.


   2009c  Feathered Cloaks, Foreign Affairs and War Leaders: Cross Cultural Symbolism

          as Represented by One Category of Matchcoats Made by Native Peoples of the

          Northeast Woodlands and Middle Atlantic Region. Bulletin of the 

          Archaeological Society of New Jersey 64: 41-55.


   2009d A Quaker Farmstead in the Delaware Valley: Research at the Taylor

         Burying Ground Site (36-CH-117) Revealing Changes in Settlement Patterns and

         Culture During the Agrarian-Industrial Transition. BULLETIN: Archaeological

         Society of Delaware 46 (New Series [2013]): 47-70.


   2009e  Skull Rituals and Plaza Plan 4 at Tikal: Lowland Maya Mortuary Patterns.

          The Codex [The University of Pennsylvania Museum] 17 (1-2/ 2008-09): 12-41.


   2009f  An Analysis of Human Skeletal Remains from an Etruscan Urn in the

          Detroit Institute of Arts. Etruscan Studies 12 (2008-2009): 61-72.


   2009g  Etruscan Origins of Pharmaceutical Vessel Shapes: Four Apothecary Jars

          From Early Chiusi, Toscana, Italy.  Pages 69-72 in, Etruria e Italia

          Preromana: Studi in onore di Giovanangelo Camporeale, Volume I (of two),  

          edited by Stefano Bruni. Pisa: Accademia Editoriale.


   2009h  The Vatican 1831 Wampum Belt: A Day of Study at the Vatican Museums.

          Newsletter of the Archaeological Society of New Jersey 224: 5-6.


   2009i  The Human Bones. Pages 205-208 in, Excavations at Le Mura di Santo Stefano, 

          Anguillara Sabazia, by Robert Van de Noort and David Whitehouse. Papers of

          the British School at Rome 77: 159-223.


   2009j  Settlement Patterns of the Lenape and Their Neighbors in the Delaware

          Valley: Remembering Fantasies, etc. Newsletter of the Archaeological Society

          of New Jersey, Number 225 (May): 1, 4-7.


   2009k  Six Popular Myths About the Lenape: A Progress Report. The SRAC Journal

          (Susquehanna River Archaeological Center) 5 (1): 1, 6-9


** 2009   Marshall Joseph Becker, Jean MacIntosh Turfa, and Bridget Algee-Hewitt.

          Human Remains from Etruscan and Italic Tomb Groups in the University of

          Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, Philadelphia: Analysis

          and Inferences. Biblioteca di “Studi etruschi” No. 48. Monograph Series of

          the Istituto di Studi Etruschi ed Italici. Pisa: Fabrizio Serra editore.

              (see review in BMCR 2010.03.50 & Etruscan News 12 (2010): 26, 28)


   2009   Marshall Joseph Becker and Jonathan Lainey. Wampum and the White Dog

          Ceremony: Preliminary Notes on a Ritual Use for this Specific Type of Shell

          Beads. Newsletter of the Archaeological Society of New Jersey 219 (January):



   2010a  “Late Woodland” (CA. 1000-1740 CE) Foraging Patterns of the Lenape and Their

          Neighbors in the Delaware Valley. Pennsylvania Archaeologist 80 (1): 17-31.


   2010b  The Armewamus Band of New Jersey: Other Clues to Differences Between the

          Lenopi and the Lenape. Pennsylvania Archaeologist 80 (2): 61-72.


   2010c  Match Coats and the Military: Mass-Produced Clothing for Native Americans as

          Parallel Markets in the Seventeenth Century. Textile History 41, No. 1:

          Supplement (Textile History and the Military). Pages 153-181. [Awarded the 

          Pasold Prize for 2010 ]


   2010d  Wampum Use in Southern New England: The Paradox of Bead Production without

          the Use of Political Belts. Pages 137-158 in, Nantucket and Other Native

          Places: The Legacy of Elizabeth Alden Little, edited by Elizabeth S.

          Chilton and Mary Lynne Rainey. Albany, NY: SUNY Press with the Massachusetts

          Archaeological Society.


   2010e  Birdstones: Insights from a New Inventory in New England.  Bulletin of the

          Archaeological Society of Connecticut 72: 5-61.


   2010f  Forest Travelers: Unusual Skills. The Codex (Pre-Columbian Society, The

          University Museum), Volume 18 (3): 3 – 15.


   2010g  Nightfall on the Tikal-Uaxactun Trail, by Donald Callender as Told to

          Marshall Becker. The Codex (Pre-Columbian Society, The University Museum),

          Volume 18 (3): 16 – 19.


   2011a  The Prinzhof (36DE3), A Swedish Colonial Site that was the First European

          Center of Government in Present Pennsylvania. Bulletin of the Archaeological

          Society of Delaware 43 New series (Fall 2006): 1-34.


   2011b  Rockshelter Use During the “Late Woodland” Period in the Northeast:

          Increased Use as an Aspect of the Pelt Trade. North American Archaeologist

          32 (1): 81-93.


   2011c  Lenape Culture History: The Transition of 1660 and its Implications for the

          Archaeology of the Final Phase of the Late Woodland Period. Journal of

          Middle Atlantic Archaeology 27:53-72.


   2011d  Jacob Skickett, Lenopi Elder: Preliminary Notes from Before 1750 to after

          1802. Pennsylvania Archaeologist 81 (2): 65-76.


   2011e  Keposh: First Lenopi Migrant into the Forks of Delaware in Pennsylvania.

          Newsletter of the Archaeological Society of New Jersey, No. 230

          (January):1, 3-7.


   2011f  Etruscan Infants: Children's cemeteries at Tarquinia, Italy, as indicators

          of an age of Transition. Pages 24-36 in, Mike Lally and Alison Moore,

          editors. (Re)Thinking the Little Ancestor: New Perspectives on the

          Archaeology of Infancy and Childhood. BAR International Series 2271.

          Oxford, England: Archaeopress.


   2011g “Forward” Pages iii-v in, The Adena Culture of the Sandy Hill Area,

          Dorchester County, Maryland, by William Jack Hranicky. AuthorHouse:

          Bloomington, Indiana.


   2012a  Birdstones: New Inferences Based On Examples From The Area Around Waverly,

          New York. The Bulletin. Journal of the New York State Archaeological

          Association 126: 1-31.


   2012b  Mehoxy of the Cohansey Band of Lenopi: a 1684 Document that Offers Clues to

          the “Missing” Part of His Biography. Bulletin of the Archaeological Society

          of Delaware 44 (New Series, 2007): 1-29.


   2012c  Wampum on the Fringe: Explaining the Absence of a post-1600 CE Native-

          Produced Commodity in Delaware. Bulletin of the Archaeological Society of

          Delaware 45 (New Series, 2008); 23-36.


   2012d  Coming of Age in Etruria: Etruscan Children’s Cemeteries at Tarquinia,

          Italy. International Journal of Anthropology 27 (1-2): 63-86.


   2012e  Wampum Chronology: An Update on the Origins and Varied Uses of a Native

          American Commodity. Bulletin of the Archaeological Society of Connecticut

          74: 47-66.


   2012f  Two Penobscot Wampum Bands in Florence, Italy: Origins and Functions of One

          Subset of Bias Woven Artifacts.  International Journal of Anthropology 27

          (4): 233-274.


   2012g  Susquehannock Material Culture Revisited: Eight Pennsylvania Ethnographic

            Artifacts in the Skokloster Castle Collection in Sweden and a Possible

            Connection to Capt. John Smith. Pennsylvania Archaeologist 82 (1): 66-73.


   2012h  An Update on Puzzle Pouches and Beaded Watch Pouches: Native American Makers

          of Items for Sale. Newsletter of the Archaeological Society of New Jersey,

          No. 235: 1, 5 and 6.


   2012i  “Delaware” (I: 165-182), and “New Jersey” (II: 747-764) in, Native America:

          A State-by-State Historical Encyclopedia (3 volumes), edited by Daniel

          Murphree. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press/ABC-CLIO.


   2012j  Claimant Indians in New Jersey and Federally Recognized Tribes [Saving the

          Library]. The SRAC Journal 8 (2): 6-8.


   2013a  Wampum Bags and Containers from the Native Northeast. Material Culture 45

          (1): 21-48.


   2013b  The William Wilson-Barker Collection in the Museo Nazionale Archeologico:

          Additional North American Archaeological and Ethnographic Material in

          Florence, Italy. International Journal of Anthropology 28 (2-3): PAGES.


   2013c  Kilns, Firing Pits and Other Ceramic Making Technologies in Ancient

          Mesoamerica. THE CODEX (Pre-Columbian Society, The University Museum),

          Volume 21 (3): 12-36.


   2013  (with Jean MacIntosh Turfa) Dental Health and Dentistry in Etruria. Pages

         870-873 in, “Health and Medicine in Etruria,” by Jean MacIntosh Turfa with

         Marshall J. Becker. Pages 855-881 in, The Etruscan World, edited by Jean

         MacIntosh Turfa. Oxon: Routledge World Series.


   2013  T. Patrick Culbert, Marshall Becker, and Robert Sharer (contributors).

         Mystery at Tikal: The Disappearance of Herman Schultheis (Report from the

         Field). The Codex (Pre-Columbian Society, The University Museum), Volume 21

         (3): 3-4.